Newswise — The standard cosmology can answer almost nothing about how the structure of a galaxy is formed. It expects a supermassive black hole at the center and dark matter in the halo to explain the circulation of stars and its velocity. However, why the visible matters are distributed in such a thin plane by the interaction with the black hole while dark matter results in a spherical distribution is a critical open question for a disc galaxy. The formation process of elliptical, ring, and long–barred galaxies also remains unknown.

The Energy Circulation Theory (ECT) claims that there is a force working between momentums whereas the effects of gravitational force is based on magnitudes of energies. The new force is named as the fundamental force, presentations of which are electric, magnetic, strong, and weak forces. Energy movements form energy circulations according to the fundamental force. As the space expands, an early energy circulation decomposes to local circulations simultaneously on the whole circumference, called the cyclic decomposition. After plural rounds of cyclic decomposition, the resulting energy circulations, which are named as the galactic seed, start to release daughter circulations, known as stellar seeds.

A high energy galactic seed separates into two galactic seeds as the space expands. There are three types of galaxies as the origin of stellar seed release; isolated single galactic seed, binary rotating seeds, and two attached seeds. There are two types of stellar seed releases; the linear release and the ring release, where stellar seeds are released simultaneously on the entire circumference. Depending on the type of galactic seeds and the linear or ring releases of stellar seeds, various shapes of stellar distribution are obtained.

Intermittent ring releases of a single galactic seed gave a disc galaxy. Two attached galactic seeds showed typical patterns of spiral disc galaxies after intermittent ring releases (double disc galaxy). If the two seeds are rotating, spiral arms came out. (See the attached figure.)

Galaxies by intermittent ring releases of stellar seeds from two attached galactic seeds (double disc galaxy, Type 3–1). (a) no rotation of the two galactic seeds Ω1.1 = 0, (b) —(e) rotation by Ω1.1 = π/12, π/8, π/6, π/4.

These should be worthwhile to be checked and validated by physicists because there is no other model that has theoretically and systemically demonstrated the observed features of the universe.

The corresponding author for this study is Shigeto Nagao ([email protected]).

The paper First Successful Simulations of How Various Shapes of Galaxies are Formed can be found in the Reports in Advances of Physical Sciences journal.


Journal Link: Reports in Advances of Physical Sciences