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Newswise: More ecosystem engineers create stability, preventing extinctions
2-Jul-2020 1:30 PM EDT
More ecosystem engineers create stability, preventing extinctions
Santa Fe Institute

Biological builders like beavers, elephants, and shipworms re-engineer their environments. How this affects their ecological network is the subject of new research, which finds that increasing the number of "ecosystem engineers" stabilizes the entire network against extinctions.

Newswise: Cave divers unlock mysteries of the earliest Americans
3-Jul-2020 2:05 PM EDT
Cave divers unlock mysteries of the earliest Americans
McMaster University

A team of underwater cave explorers in Mexico have made unprecedented archeological discoveries in some of the most inaccessible places on Earth that unlock key mysteries about the earliest inhabitants of the Western Hemisphere, according to international experts who have studied the sites.

Newswise:Video Embedded peering-under-galactic-dust-study-reveals-radiation-at-center-of-milky-way
VIDEO
26-Jun-2020 2:00 PM EDT
Peering under galactic dust, study reveals radiation at center of Milky Way
University of Wisconsin-Madison

Thanks to 20 years of homegrown galactic data, astronomers at the University of Wisconsin–Madison, UW–Whitewater and Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University have finally figured out just how much energy permeates the center of the Milky Way. The researchers say it could one day help astronomers track down where all that energy comes from. Understanding the source of the radiation could help explain not only the nature of the Milky Way, but the countless others that resemble it.

30-Jun-2020 8:50 AM EDT
Cutting Down But Not Out: Very-Heavy Drinkers Needn’t Quit Completely for Cardiovascular Benefit
Research Society on Alcoholism

High-risk drinkers who substantially reduce their alcohol use can lower their risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) despite not completely abstaining, according to study findings published in Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research. CVD encompasses a range of conditions involving the heart or blood vessels, and is the leading cause of death in the US. It is also one of many negative health outcomes associated with heavy drinking and alcohol use disorder (AUD). Reductions in drinking can be defined using World Health Organization (WHO) ‘risk drinking levels’, which classify drinkers into ‘very high’, ‘high’, ‘moderate’ and ‘low’ risk categories based on their average daily alcohol consumption. Previous research has shown that a reduction of two or more levels (for example, from ‘very high’ to ‘moderate’) can lower the risk of multiple health issues, but did not assess the impact on CVD specifically. The latest study has examined associations between reductions in WHO risk drinking

Newswise:Video Embedded warwick-moto-superbike-designs-unveiled
VIDEO
Released: 3-Jul-2020 8:55 AM EDT
Warwick Moto superbike designs unveiled
University of Warwick

As the government has announced proposals to ban the sale of petrol, diesel and hybrid cars by 2035 the race to electrify the motor industry is on, and motorbikes aren’t to be overlooked.

Released: 3-Jul-2020 7:50 AM EDT
Closing the gap: Citizen science for monitoring sustainable development
International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis

Citizen science could help track progress towards all 17 UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). An IIASA-led study, for the first time, comprehensively analyzed the current and potential contribution of citizen science data to monitor the SDGs at the indicator level.

Released: 2-Jul-2020 2:55 PM EDT
Research reflects how AI sees through the looking glass
Cornell University

Intrigued by how reflection changes images in subtle and not-so-subtle ways, a team of Cornell University researchers used artificial intelligence to investigate what sets originals apart from their reflections. Their algorithms learned to pick up on unexpected clues such as hair parts, gaze direction and, surprisingly, beards – findings with implications for training machine learning models and detecting faked images.

Released: 2-Jul-2020 2:40 PM EDT
Geoscientists Create Deeper Look at Processes Below Earth’s Surface with 3D Images
University of Texas at Dallas

Geoscientists at The University of Texas at Dallas recently used supercomputers to analyze massive amounts of earthquake data to generate high-resolution, 3D images of the dynamic geological processes taking place far below the Earth’s surface.

Released: 2-Jul-2020 2:20 PM EDT
In the Arctic, spring snowmelt triggers fresh CO2 production
San Diego State University

Studies have shown the Arctic is warming roughly twice as fast as the rest of the world, and its soil holds twice the amount of carbon dioxide as the atmosphere. New research from San Diego State University finds that water from spring snowmelt infiltrates the soil and triggers fresh carbon dioxide production at higher rates than previously assumed.

Newswise: Department of Energy awards $3.15 million to Argonne to support collaborations with industry
Released: 2-Jul-2020 2:10 PM EDT
Department of Energy awards $3.15 million to Argonne to support collaborations with industry
Argonne National Laboratory

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) announced more than $33 million in funding for 82 projects aimed at advancing commercialization of promising energy technologies and strengthening partnerships between DOE’s National Laboratories and private-sector companies.

Released: 2-Jul-2020 2:05 PM EDT
Sniffing Out Smell
Harvard Medical School

Neuroscientists reveal for the first time how relationships between different odors are encoded in the brain. Findings may explain why individuals have common but highly personalized experiences with smell, and inform efforts to understand how odor chemistry is translated into perception.

Newswise: 06bGJ15Is-a14_xSMxRUooAFH1rd7Cm0GMN3k_TbiY9ayP-7Bv8BO1tazJSYY9tX2b0hbKAu8KlhylLNBOqqTMrR9IhDfiKa1a6UvG0x2HS9-ZAEsbJfB285evMaun8TJ2g0OkkXqrZOguX6jYSTloZqMoPZ5BZdNZcJohWL4k598cjqkEwK5kWUE-lFum2MfRuoNa-ZmtNG-nfnRTI=s0-
25-Jun-2020 10:35 AM EDT
Anaplasmosis bacterium tinkers with tick’s gene expression to spread to new hosts
PLOS

For the first time, scientists have shown that the bacterium that causes the tick-borne disease anaplasmosis interferes with tick gene expression for its survival inside cells and to spread to a new vertebrate host.

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Embargo will expire: 7-Jul-2020 11:00 AM EDT Released to reporters: 2-Jul-2020 1:55 PM EDT

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Newswise: 236463_web.jpg
Released: 2-Jul-2020 1:45 PM EDT
Arctic plants may not provide predicted carbon sequestration potential
University of Stirling

The environmental benefits of taller, shrubbier tundra plants in the Arctic may be overstated, according to new research involving the University of Stirling.

Newswise: Reverse engineering of 3D printed parts by machine learning 
Reveals security vulnerabilities
Released: 2-Jul-2020 1:10 PM EDT
Reverse engineering of 3D printed parts by machine learning Reveals security vulnerabilities
NYU Tandon School of Engineering

Glass- and carbon- fiber reinforced composites, whose use in aerospace and other high-performance applications is soaring. Components made of these materials are often 3D printed. Their strength and flexibility depends on how each layer of fibers is deposited by the printer head, whose layer-by-layer orientation is determined by toolpath instricutions in a component's CAD file. A team of NYU Tandon researchers showed that that 3D printing toolpaths are easy to reproduce — and therefore steal — with machine learning. They demonstrated a method of reverse engineering of a 3D-printed glass fiber reinforced polymer filament that, when 3D-printed, has a dimensional accuracy within one-third of 1% of the original part.

Released: 2-Jul-2020 12:40 PM EDT
How Prison and Police Discrimination Affect Black Sexual Minority Men’s Health
Rutgers University-New Brunswick

Incarceration and police discrimination may contribute to HIV, depression and anxiety among Black gay, bisexual and other sexual minority men, a Rutgers led study finds.

Newswise: Summit Helps Predict Molecular Breakups
Released: 2-Jul-2020 12:40 PM EDT
Summit Helps Predict Molecular Breakups
Oak Ridge National Laboratory

A team used the Summit supercomputer to simulate transition metal systems—such as copper bound to molecules of nitrogen, dihydrogen, or water—and correctly predicted the amount of energy required to break apart dozens of molecular systems, paving the way for a greater understanding of these materials.

Newswise: West Virginia researchers use neutrons to study materials for power plant improvements
Released: 2-Jul-2020 12:35 PM EDT
West Virginia researchers use neutrons to study materials for power plant improvements
Oak Ridge National Laboratory

Researchers from West Virginia University are using neutron scattering at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to study novel materials called high entropy oxides, or HEOs. Their goal is to collect insights into how the atoms in the HEOs bind together and whether the materials can be used to develop useful applications to improve power plant operations.

Released: 2-Jul-2020 12:20 PM EDT
New method measures temperature within 3D objects
University of Wisconsin-Madison

University of Wisconsin–Madison engineers have made it possible to remotely determine the temperature beneath the surface of certain materials using a new technique they call depth thermography. The method may be useful in applications where traditional temperature probes won’t work, like monitoring semiconductor performance or next-generation nuclear reactors.

Newswise:Video Embedded science-fiction-becomes-fact-teleportation-helps-to-create-live-musical-performance
VIDEO
Released: 2-Jul-2020 11:40 AM EDT
Science fiction becomes fact -- Teleportation helps to create live musical performance
University of Plymouth

Teleportation is most commonly the stuff of science fiction and, for many, would conjure up the immortal phrase "Beam me up Scotty".

Newswise: Integrating Variable Signals in Hydrogels
Released: 2-Jul-2020 11:05 AM EDT
Integrating Variable Signals in Hydrogels
Department of Energy, Office of Science

All living organisms have systems that can link multiple signals to manage tasks. This ability, called complex signal integration, is not found in artificial systems. This new study demonstrates a pathway for simple, soft artificial materials called hydrogel polymers to use multiple signals from external sources to produce distinct responses.

Newswise: Carbon-loving materials designed to reduce industrial emissions
Released: 2-Jul-2020 11:05 AM EDT
Carbon-loving materials designed to reduce industrial emissions
Oak Ridge National Laboratory

Researchers at the Department of Energy’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, are advancing gas membrane materials to expand practical technology options for reducing industrial carbon emissions.

Newswise: Stellar Fireworks Celebrate Birth of Giant Cluster
Released: 2-Jul-2020 11:00 AM EDT
Stellar Fireworks Celebrate Birth of Giant Cluster
National Radio Astronomy Observatory

Astronomers created a stunning new image showing celestial fireworks in star cluster G286.21+0.17.

Newswise: How Old Is Your Dog in Human Years? Scientists Develop Better Method than ‘Multiply by 7’
29-Jun-2020 7:50 PM EDT
How Old Is Your Dog in Human Years? Scientists Develop Better Method than ‘Multiply by 7’
University of California San Diego Health

By mapping molecular changes in the genome over time, UC San Diego researchers developed a formula to more accurately compare dog age to human age — a tool that could also help them evaluate how well anti-aging products work.

Newswise: 070120-bes-holograms.jpg?itok=F5sxZVUl
Released: 2-Jul-2020 10:55 AM EDT
Designing Better Holograms
Department of Energy, Office of Science

Researchers demonstrated novel ways to design and build materials for controlling light. The new materials have two layers of metasurfaces, overcoming the limits on conventional single-layer materials. The novel two-layer design enables a new level of control over light properties and more functionality for devices that use these materials.

Newswise: 063020-bes-synthetic-trees.jpg?itok=trPxk0s9
Released: 2-Jul-2020 10:30 AM EDT
Stabilizing Water Loss in Synthetic Trees
Department of Energy, Office of Science

Scientists are developing “synthetic trees” that work like their natural counterparts to serve in specific applications. In an important step, scientists fabricated synthetic leaves using nanoporous disks that control moisture at the scale of molecules to mimic natural transpiration. The disks use a novel, layered design topped with silicon pores to trap water vapor.

Newswise: Being Exceptional in Higher Dimensions
Released: 2-Jul-2020 10:25 AM EDT
Being Exceptional in Higher Dimensions
Department of Energy, Office of Science

By connecting electromagnetic waves and magnetism to create a system made of magnon polaritons, scientists demonstrated the existence of an “exceptional surface” for the first time. Exceptional surfaces were originally a purely mathematical concept, but recent research shows they have potential physical, real-world applications.

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Embargo will expire: 8-Jul-2020 8:00 AM EDT Released to reporters: 2-Jul-2020 10:15 AM EDT

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Embargo will expire: 8-Jul-2020 2:00 PM EDT Released to reporters: 2-Jul-2020 10:05 AM EDT

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Released: 2-Jul-2020 8:55 AM EDT
In mouse study, black raspberries show promise for reducing skin inflammation
Ohio State University

Eating black raspberries might reduce inflammation associated with skin allergies, a new study indicates.

Released: 2-Jul-2020 8:50 AM EDT
Learn from the pandemic to prevent environmental catastrophe, scientists argue
University of Cambridge

• COVID-19 is comparable to climate and extinction emergencies, say scientists from the UK and US – all share features such as lagged impacts, feedback loops, and complex dynamics. • Delayed action in the pandemic cost lives and economic growth, just as it will with environmental crises – but on a scale “too grave to contemplate”.

Newswise: Putting zinc on Bread Wheat Leaves
Released: 2-Jul-2020 8:00 AM EDT
Putting zinc on Bread Wheat Leaves
American Society of Agronomy (ASA), Crop Science Society of America (CSSA), Soil Science Society of America (SSSA)

Applying zinc to the leaves of bread wheat can increase wheat grain zinc concentrations and improve its nutritional content.

Newswise: The lightest shielding material in the world
Released: 2-Jul-2020 7:10 AM EDT
The lightest shielding material in the world
Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology

Empa researchers have succeeded in applying aerogels to microelectronics: Aerogels based on cellulose nanofibers can effectively shield electromagnetic radiation over a wide frequency range – and they are unrivalled in terms of weight.

24-Jun-2020 11:00 AM EDT
Common Fireworks Release Toxic Metals Into the Air
NYU Langone Health

Some of America’s favorite Independence Day fireworks emit lead, copper, and other toxins, a new study suggests. These metals, which are used to give fireworks their vibrant color, also damage human cells and animal lungs.

Newswise: TMS and MRS Announce 2020-2021 Congressional Science and Engineering Fellow
Released: 1-Jul-2020 4:35 PM EDT
TMS and MRS Announce 2020-2021 Congressional Science and Engineering Fellow
TMS (The Minerals, Metals and Materials Society)

Megan Malara, The Ohio State University, has been named as the 2020-2021 TMS/MRS Congressional Science and Engineering Fellow.

Newswise: National Science Foundation Awards $5 Million to Develop Innovative AI Resource
Released: 1-Jul-2020 4:15 PM EDT
National Science Foundation Awards $5 Million to Develop Innovative AI Resource
University of California San Diego

The NSF has awarded the San Diego Supercomputer Center (SDSC) at UC San Diego a $5 million grant to develop a high-performance resource for conducting artificial intelligence (AI) research across a wide swath of science and engineering domains.

Newswise:Video Embedded engineers-3d-print-sensors-onto-moving-organs
VIDEO
Released: 1-Jul-2020 3:55 PM EDT
Engineers 3D-print sensors onto moving organs
National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering

A new technique funded by NIBIB and developed by University of Minnesota researchers allows 3D printing of hydrogel-based sensors directly on the surface of organs, such as lungs—even as they expand and contract.

Newswise: High-throughput X-ray diffraction instrument comes to Argonne’s Advanced Photon Source
Released: 1-Jul-2020 3:45 PM EDT
High-throughput X-ray diffraction instrument comes to Argonne’s Advanced Photon Source
Argonne National Laboratory

A collaboration between Argonne and several universities has led to the creation of a new high-throughput X-ray diffraction instrument that will enable materials research and clear the way for improvements in advance of the APS Upgrade.

Newswise: 236338_web.jpg
Released: 1-Jul-2020 3:40 PM EDT
FAST detects neutral hydrogen emission from extragalactic galaxies for the first time
Chinese Academy of Sciences

The Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical Radio Telescope (FAST) is the largest telescope with the highest sensitivity in the world. Extragalactic neutral hydrogen detection is one of important scientific goals of FAST.

Newswise: Treatments tested for invasive pest on allium crops
Released: 1-Jul-2020 3:10 PM EDT
Treatments tested for invasive pest on allium crops
Cornell University

A Cornell University-led team of researchers field-tested 14 active ingredients in insecticides, applied in a variety of methods, to understand the best treatment options against the Allium leafminer, a growing threat to onions, garlic and leeks.

Newswise: 236351_web.jpg
Released: 1-Jul-2020 2:45 PM EDT
How to bring conservation messaging into wildlife-based tourism
University of Helsinki

The study states that failing to encourage tourists to do more on behalf of wildlife represents a missed opportunity for conservation.

Released: 1-Jul-2020 2:40 PM EDT
Surveys Reveal Significant Shifts in Consumer Behavior During Pandemic
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI)

The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly altered how people shop, how much they buy, the trips they take outside their homes, and the number of tele-activities — like work, medicine, and education — that have become commonplace. These changes were rapid and have tremendously impacted the economy, supply chains, and the environment. Two sets of surveys were conducted by researchers at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in an effort to quantify and understand these unprecedented shifts — and evaluate the likelihood they may last after the pandemic has ended.

Newswise: New Drug Reduces Stroke Damage in Mice
29-Jun-2020 12:35 PM EDT
New Drug Reduces Stroke Damage in Mice
Health Sciences at the University of Pittsburgh

Mice that received an injection of a new experimental drug, TAT-DP-2, after a stroke had smaller areas of damage, and their long-term neurological function was better than that of untreated animals.

25-Jun-2020 10:40 AM EDT
Level of media coverage for scientific research linked to number of citations
PLOS

An analysis of over 800 academic research papers on physical health and exercise suggests that the level of popular media coverage for a given paper is strongly linked to the attention it receives within the scientific community.

Released: 1-Jul-2020 1:55 PM EDT
FSU experts available to comment on geochemical effects of Saharan dust cloud
Florida State University

By: Bill Wellock | Published: July 1, 2020 | 1:25 pm | SHARE: More dust from the Sahara Desert is forecast to come to the United States this week. The massive dust plume known as the Saharan Air Layer has a myriad of effects on air quality, fertilizing ecosystems and more.Florida State University has experts available to comment on some of the surprising features related to the meteorological phenomenon.

Newswise: Jellyfish-Inspired Soft Robots Can Outswim Their Natural Counterparts
Released: 1-Jul-2020 1:50 PM EDT
Jellyfish-Inspired Soft Robots Can Outswim Their Natural Counterparts
North Carolina State University

Engineering researchers have developed soft robots inspired by jellyfish that can outswim their real-life counterparts. More practically, the new jellyfish-bots highlight a technique that uses pre-stressed polymers to make soft robots more powerful.

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Embargo will expire: 7-Jul-2020 11:00 AM EDT Released to reporters: 1-Jul-2020 1:50 PM EDT

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Newswise: Saturday Morning Physics goes virtual
Released: 1-Jul-2020 1:35 PM EDT
Saturday Morning Physics goes virtual
Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab)

Fermilab's popular outreach program for high school students, started in 1980, takes full advantage of modern technology to reach a broader audience. Recordings now are available online.

Newswise: 236319_web.jpg
Released: 1-Jul-2020 1:20 PM EDT
Building a harder diamond
University of Tsukuba

Researchers at the University of Tsukuba used computer calculations to design a new carbon-based material even harder than diamond.


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