Latest News from: American Institute of Physics (AIP)

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Article ID: 700648

New World Record Magnetic Field

American Institute of Physics (AIP)

Scientists at the University of Tokyo have recorded the largest magnetic field ever generated indoors -- a whopping 1,200 tesla, as measured in the standard units of magnetic field strength. The high magnetic field also has implications for nuclear fusion reactors, a tantalizing if unrealized potential future source of abundant clean energy. The experiments that set the new world record are described in this week’s Review of Scientific Instruments.

Released:
17-Sep-2018 12:05 PM EDT

Article ID: 700485

Laser Sintering Optimized for Printed Electronics

American Institute of Physics (AIP)

Printed electronics use standard printing techniques to manufacture electronic devices on different substrates like glass, plastic films, and paper. Interest in this area is growing because of the potential to create cheaper circuits more efficiently than conventional methods. A new study published in AIP Advances provides insights into the processing of copper nanoparticle ink with green laser light.

Released:
13-Sep-2018 10:05 AM EDT

Article ID: 700384

Detecting Hydrogen Using the Extraordinary Hall Effect in Cobalt-Palladium Thin Films

American Institute of Physics (AIP)

Scientists looking to hydrogen as a next-generation clean energy source are developing hydrogen-sensing technologies, the most common of which uses palladium-based thin films because palladium readily absorbs hydrogen gas. However, it also readily absorbs other gases, decreasing the overall efficiency of these sensors. Researchers conducted a systematic study of hydrogen detection using the Extraordinary Hall Effect to measure the hydrogen magnetization response in cobalt-palladium thin films, and reports in the Journal of Applied Physics.

Released:
12-Sep-2018 9:40 AM EDT
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  • Embargo expired:
    11-Sep-2018 11:00 AM EDT

Article ID: 699997

Separating the Sound from the Noise in Hot Plasma Fusion

American Institute of Physics (AIP)

For fusion power plants to be effective, scientists must find a way to trigger the low-to-high confinement transition, or “L-H transition” for short. Scientists have observed that the L-H transition is always associated with zonal flows of plasma. Theoretically, zonal flows in a plasma consist of both a stationary flow with a near-zero frequency and one that oscillates at a higher frequency called the geodesic acoustic mode. For the first time, researchers have detected GAM at two different points simultaneously within the reactor. This new experimental setup will be a useful diagnostic tool for investigating the physics of zonal flows, and their role in the L-H transition. The researchers report these findings in a new paper published in Physics of Plasmas.

Released:
5-Sep-2018 10:05 AM EDT
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Article ID: 700313

Carbon Nanodots Do an Ultrafine Job With In Vitro Lung Tissue

American Institute of Physics (AIP)

Epidemiological studies have established a strong correlation between inhaling ultrafine particles from incomplete combustion and respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. Still, relatively little is known about the mechanisms behind how air particulates affect human health. New work with carbon nanodots seeks to provide the first model of how ultrafine carbon-based particles interact with the lung tissues. Researchers created a 3D lung cell model system to investigate how carbon-based combustion byproducts behave as they interact with human epithelial tissue. They discuss their work in Biointerphases.

Released:
11-Sep-2018 10:05 AM EDT
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Article ID: 700037

Unraveling How Spiderwebs Absorb Energy

American Institute of Physics (AIP)

Spiderwebs can withstand a predator’s impact while still helping catch and detect small prey. Spiders architect these lightweight networks for strength and elasticity using different silks and geometric structures. Recently, researchers unraveled a new energy absorption mechanism that explains how spiderwebs can be simultaneously sensitive and impact-resistant. The research team reports their findings in Applied Physics Letters.

Released:
5-Sep-2018 1:05 PM EDT
  • Embargo expired:
    4-Sep-2018 11:00 AM EDT

Article ID: 699422

Simulations Reveal Role of Calcium in Titanium Implant Acceptance

American Institute of Physics (AIP)

Titanium-based materials are widely used in medical implant technology, and coating the surface of titanium materials with biologically active molecules has recently shown promise to improve how cells adhere to implants and promote tissue regeneration. The mechanisms behind how peptides stick to titanium, however, are not fully understood. Researchers have now found how calcium ions present at the interface between titanium oxide and tissues affect how well peptides bind to the metal. The team reports their findings in Biointerphases.

Released:
23-Aug-2018 9:00 AM EDT
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  • Embargo expired:
    4-Sep-2018 11:00 AM EDT

Article ID: 699864

New Method Speeds Up Simulations, Giving New Insights into Protein Folding

American Institute of Physics (AIP)

Scientists seek to better understand protein folding to cure misfolding diseases, but this incredibly complex process requires sophisticated algorithms to identify the folding mechanisms. Computational biophysicists have proposed a new way to identify the most crucial factors for protein folding. They demonstrated the short simulation time of their approach on a small but intriguing protein, “GB1 beta-hairpin,” in The Journal of Chemical Physics.

Released:
31-Aug-2018 10:05 AM EDT

Article ID: 699752

Plot Points: A Study Demonstrates a New Recurrence-Based Method that Mimics Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test

American Institute of Physics (AIP)

The recurrence plot is a vital tool for analyzing nonlinear dynamic systems, especially systems involving empirically observed time series data. RPs show patterns in a phase space system and indicate where data visit the same coordinates, and can mimic some types of inferential statistics and linear analyses. A paper in Chaos provides a proof of concept for using RPs to mimic the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, which scientists use to determine if two data sets significantly differ.

Released:
29-Aug-2018 2:05 PM EDT
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Article ID: 699714

European Researchers Develop a New Technique to Forecast Geomagnetic Storms

American Institute of Physics (AIP)

Flashes of brightness known as solar flares can be followed by coronal mass ejections that send plasma from the sun into space. These charged particles can then travel to Earth, and when they arrive they wreak havoc on Earth’s magnetic field. The result can be beautiful but also destructive: auroras and geomagnetic storms. In the journal Chaos, researchers report a method for analyzing magnetic field data that might provide better short-term forecasting of geomagnetic storms.

Released:
29-Aug-2018 11:05 AM EDT

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