Research Alert


Severe aortic stenosis (AS) is the most prevalent valvular heart disease in developed countries. Heart failure (HF) is a frequent comorbidity of this condition and represents a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. The spectrum of both conditions has become progressively wider in the last decade; HF has been divided in three groups according to left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and severe AS has been reclassified into four groups according to aortic valve (AV) gradient, AV flow measured by LV stroke index, and LVEF. Although all four AS types may be found in patients with signs and symptoms of HF, low-flow AS with low or normal gradient is the most common type in these patients. Several studies have documented that patients with low-flow severe AS have a higher mortality risk than patients with normal-flow and high-gradient AS not only during the natural progression of the disease, but also after either interventional or surgical AV replacement. Existing data support transcatheter AV replacement (TAVR) in patients with severe AS, irrespective of AV gradient, AV flow, and LVEF. Controversial issues, however, are still present on this topic, which has not been adequately addressed by large studies and trials. This clinical review summarizes the epidemiology of the different HF types in patients with severe AS, as well as the impact of HF and LVEF on clinical outcomes of AS patients either untreated or after AV replacement. In particular, we addressed the influence of AV gradient and AV flow on all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in AS patients after TAVR.

Journal Link: Heart Failure Reviews

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Heart Failure Reviews