Newswise — WACO, Texas (May 31, 2019) – Summer signals an increase in mosquito populations, and with more mosquitoes buzzing around, that means more people are dealing with mosquito bites and their consequences, from an itchy inconvenience to serious diseases such as West Nile Virus.
If you think that mosquitoes tend to make a meal out of you more often than not, you might be right. Some people are more attractive to mosquitoes than others, says a Baylor University mosquito expert.
Jason Pitts, Ph.D., assistant professor of biology in Baylor’s College of Arts and Sciences, studies “host seeking” or how mosquitoes find their next blood meal. He said odor is a major factor why mosquitoes bite some people more often.
“Many insects find their way around the world through their sense of smell, even more than vision,” Pitts said. “Mosquitoes and other insects really are adept at finding places to lay their eggs or finding flowers on which to feed or finding people on which to blood feed just by the sense of smell.”
Are outdoor fans at summer parties or picnics a good idea?
Female mosquitoes, which bite because they need blood for reproduction, have the ability to smell odor over long distances.
“Females are able to track upwind. They literally track,” Pitts said. “Once they get that stream of odor, they fly in and out of the stream of odor to orient themselves to try to get to the host.”
As people gather this summer for family reunions, picnics or pool parties, using outdoor fans to keep cool – or blow away mosquitoes – actually may be signaling the pesky insects to join the festivities.
“Fans are a double-edged sword. One thing, mosquitoes are not particularly strong flyers so that is why a fan might work to blow them away from you, but the drawback is that you are blowing your odor downwind. That is attractive to mosquitoes. At the same time you might be blowing mosquitoes away from you, you may actually be calling to mosquitoes from far away,” Pitts said.
Heat is a mosquito’s “beacon”
It is not just odor. Heat—at very close range—also is very attractive for female mosquitoes.
“Mosquitoes are exquisitely sensitive to differences in temperature on surfaces. When it comes to heat or carbon monoxide, it can be a beacon for mosquitoes as well.”
Lastly, researchers have found that in addition to odor and heat, mosquitoes can use the sense of taste to decide whether to feed.
“Once a mosquito lands on the skin, they taste the skin to decide whether this is a good host or not,” Pitts said. “They can actually taste DEET, which is long-range repellant. They can smell it and avoid it. When they taste it, they will also fly away. Therefore, we know that taste is also important in some ways. Taste is the final choice before blood feeding.”
Three tips to minimize mosquito bites this summer
Whether you are a favorite among mosquitoes or not, Pitts recommends these three tips for minimizing your chances of being bitten.
- Reduce mosquitoes’ breeding grounds.
The most important thing that anyone can do is to reduce breeding sources for mosquitoes by eliminating stagnant water. If you have standing water in any kind of container in your yard, get in the habit of emptying those containers, including children’s swimming pools, which should be emptied at least once a week. Why? Once a mosquito hatches, it takes a mosquito larva about a week to completely mature and become an adult. Emptying stagnant water can have a huge impact on lowering mosquito populations, especially in urban areas.
- Stick with DEET topical repellants.
Bracelets, bands and other wearable devices that emit repellant compounds, such as citronella, lemongrass oil or eucalyptus, probably do reduce some mosquito bites. However, Pitts said these devices don’t provide absolute protection against bites. Topical repellants, he said, are still the best. They cover your skin and will not only have a volatile repellant effect but if a mosquito lands on a person’s skin, it will not bite.
- Avoid peak biting times.
Typically, mosquitoes bite at dusk and at dawn. Mosquitoes are most active when the sun is rising or setting. If you like to take a morning run or walk at dusk, you should apply DEET repellant to avoid being bitten.
ABOUT BAYLOR UNIVERSITY
Baylor University is a private Christian University and a nationally ranked research institution. The University provides a vibrant campus community for more than 17,000 students by blending interdisciplinary research with an international reputation for educational excellence and a faculty commitment to teaching and scholarship. Chartered in 1845 by the Republic of Texas through the efforts of Baptist pioneers, Baylor is the oldest continually operating University in Texas. Located in Waco, Baylor welcomes students from all 50 states and more than 90 countries to study a broad range of degrees among its 12 nationally recognized academic divisions.
ABOUT BAYLOR COLLEGE OF ARTS & SCIENCES
The College of Arts & Sciences is Baylor University’s oldest and largest academic division, consisting of 25 academic departments and seven academic centers and institutes. The more than 5,000 courses taught in the College span topics from art and theatre to religion, philosophy, sociology and the natural sciences. Faculty conduct research around the world, and research on the undergraduate and graduate level is prevalent throughout all disciplines. Visit www.baylor.edu/artsandsciences.