Abstract:Objectives:Febrile neutropenia (FN) is a common condition in children receiving chemotherapy. Our goal in this study was to develop a model for predicting blood stream infection (BSI) and transfer to intensive care (TIC) at time of presentation in pediatric cancer patients with FN. Methods: We conducted an observational cohort analysis of pediatric and adolescent cancer patients younger than 24 years admitted for fever and chemotherapy-induced neutropenia over a 7-year period. We excluded stem cell transplant recipients who developed FN after transplant and febrile non-neutropenic episodes. The primary outcome was onset of BSI, as determined by positive blood culture within 7 days of onset of FN. The secondary outcome was transfer to intensive care (TIC) within 14 days of FN onset. Predictor variables include demographics, clinical, and laboratory measures on initial presentation for FN. Data were divided into independent derivation (2009-2015) and prospective validation (2015-2016) cohorts. Prediction models were built for both outcomes using logistic regression and random forest and compared with Hakim model. Performance was assessed using area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) metrics. Results: A total of 505 FN episodes (FNEs) were identified in 230 patients. BSI was diagnosed in 106 (21%) and TIC occurred in 56 (10.6%) episodes. The most common oncologic diagnosis with FN was acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and the highest rate of BSI was in patients with AML. Patients who had BSI had higher maximum temperature, higher rates of prior BSI and higher incidence of hypotension compared with patients who did not have BSI. FN patients who were transferred to the intensive care (TIC) had higher temperature and higher incidence of hypotension at presentation compared to FN patients who didn’t have TIC. We compared 3 models: (1) random forest (2) logistic regression and (3) Hakim model. The areas under the curve for BSI prediction were (0.79, 0.65, and 0.64, P < 0.05) for models 1,2, and 3, respectively. And for TIC prediction were (0.88, 0.76, and 0.65, P < 0.05) respectively. The random forest model demonstrated higher accuracy in predicting BSI and TIC and showed a negative predictive value (NPV) of 0.91 and 0.97 for BSI and TIC respectively at the best cutoff point as determined by Youden’s Index. Likelihood ratios (LRs) (post-test probability) for RF model have potential utility of identifying low risk for BSI and TIC (0.24 and 0.12) and high-risk patients (3.5 and 6.8) respectively. Conclusions: Our prediction model has a good diagnostic performance in clinical practices for both BSI and TIC in FN patients at the time of presentation. The model can be used to identify a group of individuals at low risk for BSI who may benefit from early discharge and reduce length of stay, also it can identify FN patients at high risk of complications who might benefit from more intensive therapies at presentation.

Journal Link: 10.21203/rs.3.rs-1120441/v1 Journal Link: Publisher Website Journal Link: Download PDF Journal Link: Google Scholar