Adipose tissue (AT) is recognized as a complex organ involved in major home-ostatic body functions, such as food intake, energy balance, immunomodulation, development and growth, and functioning of the reproductive organs. The role of AT in tissue and organ homeostasis, repair and regeneration is increasingly recognized. Different AT compartments (white AT, brown AT and bone marrow AT) and their interrelation with bone metabolism will be presented. AT-derived stem cell populations - adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells and pluripotent-like stem cells. Multilineage differentiating stress-enduring and dedifferentiated fat cells can be obtained in relatively high quantities compared to other sources. Their role in different strategies of bone and fracture healing tissue engineering and cell therapy will be described. The current use of AT- or AT-derived stem cell populations for fracture healing and bone regenerative strategies will be presented, as well as major challenges in furthering bone regenerative strategies to clinical settings.
Key Words: Adipose tissue, Bone metabolism, Fracture healing, Adipose-derived stem cells, Multilineage differentiating stress-enduring, Dedifferentiated fat cells, Bone engineering
Core Tip: Adipose tissue (AT) is a multifunctional organ with intricate body functions. Different AT compartments have complex interrelations with bone metabolism, tissue maintenance and fracture healing. AT-derived stem cell populations are promising tools for bone regeneration. The current use of AT- or AT-derived stem cell populations for fracture healing and bone regenerative strategies will be presented, as well as major challenges in furthering bone regenerative strategies to clinical settings.
- Citation: Labusca L. Adipose tissue in bone regeneration - stem cell source and beyond. World J Stem Cells 2022; 14(6): 372-392
- URL: https://www.wjgnet.com/1948-0210/full/v14/i6/372.htm
- DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.4252/wjsc.v14.i6.372