Abstract: Neurodegenerative diseases that affect the motor neurons, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), have little treatment options and are generally rapidly fatal (1, 2). We harnessed the power of unbiased, whole transcriptome differential gene expression analysis, utilizing primary patient cells and tissues to discover genes whose expression defines ALS using published data (3, 4). We found significant differential expression of MLX, encoding MLX, MAX dimerization protein, in the motor neurons of patients with ALS. MLX was also differentially expressed in the induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived motor neurons of patients with ALS. MLX transcript was present at significantly higher levels in ALS patient motor neurons as compared to control motor neurons. These analyses will begin to define the transcriptional landscape of ALS.