Abstract: Molecular subtypes of colorectal cancer (CRC) are currently identified via the snapshot transcriptional profiles, largely ignoring the dynamic changes of gene expressions. Conversely, biological networks remain relatively stable irrespective of time and condition. Here, we introduce an individual-specific gene interaction perturbation network-based (GIN) approach and identify six GIN subtypes (GINS1-6) with distinguishing features: (i) GINS1 (proliferative, 24%~34%), elevated proliferative activity, high tumor purity, immune-desert, PIK3CA mutations, and immunotherapeutic resistance; (ii) GINS2 (stromal-rich, 14%~22%), abundant fibroblasts, immune-suppressed, stem-cell-like, SMAD4 mutations, unfavorable prognosis, high potential of recurrence and metastasis, immunotherapeutic resistance, and sensitive to fluorouracil-based chemotherapy; (iii) GINS3 (KRAS-inactivated, 13%~20%), high tumor purity, immune-desert, activation of EGFR and ephrin receptors, chromosomal instability (CIN), fewer KRAS mutations, SMOC1 methylation, immunotherapeutic resistance, and sensitive to cetuximab and bevacizumab; (iv) GINS4 (mixed, 10%~19%), moderate level of stromal and immune activities, transit-amplifying-like, and TMEM106A methylation; (v) GINS5 (immune-activated, 12%~24%), stronger immune activation, plentiful tumor mutation and neoantigen burden, microsatellite instability and high CpG island methylator phenotype, BRAF mutations, favorable prognosis, and sensitive to immunotherapy and PARP inhibitors; (vi) GINS6, (metabolic, 5%~8%), accumulated fatty acids, enterocyte-like, and BMP activity. Overall, the novel high-resolution taxonomy derived from an interactome perspective could facilitate more effective management of CRC patients.

Journal Link: 10.1101/2022.09.02.506442 Journal Link: Publisher Website Journal Link: Download PDF Journal Link: Google Scholar