Abstract: The stem cell theory that all blood cells are derived from hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) is a central dogma in hematology. However, various types of blood cells are already produced from hemogenic endothelial cells (HECs) before the first HSCs appear at embryonic day (E)11 in the mouse embryo. This early blood cell production from HECs, called HSC-independent hematopoiesis, includes primitive and definitive erythromyeloid progenitors that transiently support fetal blood homeostasis until HSC-derived hematopoiesis is established. Lymphoid potential has traditionally been detected in the extra-embryonic yolk sac (YS) and/or embryos before HSC emergence, but the actual presence of lymphoid progenitors at this stage remains unknown. In addition, whether HSCs in the fetal liver are the main source of innate-like B-1a cells has been controversial. Here, using complementary lineage tracing mouse models, we show that HSC-independent multipotent progenitors (MPPs) and HSC-independent adoptive B-lymphoid progenitors persist into adult life. Furthermore, HSCs minimally contribute to the peritoneal B-1a cell pool; most B-1a cells are originated directly from ECs in the YS and embryo and HSC-independent for life. Our discovery of extensive HSC-independent MPP and B-lymphoid progenitors in adults attests to the complex blood developmental dynamics through embryo to adult that underpin the immune system and challenges the paradigm of HSC theory in hematology.

Journal Link: 10.1101/2021.12.02.468909 Journal Link: Publisher Website Journal Link: Download PDF Journal Link: Google Scholar