Abstract: Bone injuries and fractures reliably heal through a process of regeneration with restoration to original structure and function when the gap between adjacent sides of a fracture site is small. However, when there is significant volumetric loss of bone, bone regeneration usually does not occur. In the present studies, we explore a particular case of volumetric bone loss in a mouse model of human periodontal disease (PD) in which alveolar bone surrounding teeth is permanently lost and not replaced. This model employs the placement a ligature around the upper second molar which leads to inflammation and bone breakdown and faithfully replicates the bacterially-induced inflammatory etiology of human PD to induce bone degeneration. After 10 days, the ligature is removed and the mice are treated with a timed-release formulation of a small molecule inhibitor of prolylhydroxylases (PHDi; 1,4-DPCA) previously shown to induce epimorphic regeneration of soft tissue in non-regenerating mice. This PHDi induces high expression of HIF-1α and the regenerative response is completely blocked by siHIF1a. Here, we observe that timed-release 1,4-DPCA rapidly and completely restores bone and soft tissue with normal anatomic fidelity and with increased stem cell markers due to stem cell migration into the site and/or de-differentiation of local tissue, PDL cell proliferation, and increased vascularization. In-vitro studies using gingival tissue show that 1,4-DPCA indeed induces de-differentiation and the expression of stem cell markers but does not exclude the role of migrating stem cells.
Journal Link: 10.1101/2021.12.14.472623 Journal Link: Publisher Website Journal Link: Download PDF Journal Link: Google Scholar