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The heart is a highly complex, multicellular solid organ with energy-demanding processes that require a dense vascular network, extensive cell-cell interactions, and extracellular matrix (ECM)-mediated crosstalk among heterogeneous cell populations. Here, we describe the regeneration of left ventricular (LV) wall using decellularized whole rabbit heart scaffolds recellularized exclusively with human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived endothelial cells, cardiomyocytes, and other cardiac cell types. Cells were sequentially delivered to the scaffold using an optimized endothelial cell:cardiomyocyte media. Macroscopic assessment after 60 days showed that the LV wall of recellularized hearts was anatomically restored to full thickness from base to apex and endocardium to epicardium. Histologic analysis of the recellularized LV wall revealed a heterogeneous pool of cardiac cells containing aligned cardiac troponin T-positive cells in close contact with ECM; vessels varied from large artery-like, surrounded by smooth muscle actin+ cells, to capillary-like. Vessel patency was demonstrated after perfusion of recellularized hearts transplanted into the femoral artery bed of a pig. The construct exhibited visible beating and responded to chronotropic drug administration. These results demonstrate the ability to tissue engineer a vascularized, full-thickness LV wall with an unparalleled level of microanatomical organization and multicellular composition, using decellularized ECM and human cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells, and other cardiac cell types.

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