Mechanism of action of chloroquine/ hydroxychloroquine for COVID-19 infection

The article by Dr. Alberto Boretti and colleagues is published in Coronaviruses, 2020
1-Dec-2020 1:55 PM EST, by Bentham Science Publishers

Newswise — The recent serious outbreak of Covid19 has affected (November 13, 2020) 53,796,098 people worldwide, resulting in 37,555,669 recovered, 1,310,250 deaths (Figure 1), and a large number of open cases. It has required urgent medical treatments for numerous patients. No clinically active vaccines or antiviral agents are available for Covid19. According to several studies, Chloroquine (CQ) and Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) have shown promises as Covid19 antiviral especially when administered with Azithromycin (AZM). However, there is significant controversy. Many countries are limiting the use of CQ/HCQ, while others are accepting this therapeutical option (Figure 2). The work [1] is addressing the open question if Chloroquine (CQ) and Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) are helpful in Covid19 infection by analyzing the latest published literature on the subject while applying the scientific method.

Both papers in favor, or against, this therapeutical option are reviewed [1]. Bias by a conflict of interest is also taken into account. The rationale behind this use is clear. CQ/HCQ is effective against Covid19 in-vitro and in-vivo laboratory studies. Therapy in Covid19 infected patients with CQ/HCQ is supported by evidence of trials and field experiences from multiple sources. The relevant works are reviewed. The presence or absence of conflict of interest is weighed against the conclusions. CQ/HCQ has been used with success in mild cases or medium severity cases. No randomized controlled trial has however been conducted to support the safety and efficacy of CQ/HCQ and AZM for Covid19. Prophylaxis with CQ/HCQ is more controversial, but generally not having side effects, and supported by pre-clinical studies. The mechanism of action against Covid19 is unclear. More research is needed to understand the mechanisms of actions CQ/HCQ have against Covid19 infection, and this requires investigations with nanoscale imaging of viral infection of host cells. Most of the published works indicate CQ/HCQ is likely effective against Covid19 infection, almost 100% in prophylaxis and mild to medium severity cases, and 60% in late infection cases. The percentage of positive works is larger if works conducted under a probable conflict of interest are excluded from the list. The result is consistent with the updated analysis provided in [2], [3], that suggests high efficacy of CQ/HCQ in early treatments and lower efficacy and controversial results only for late treatment. Statistically, 100% of early treatment studies are positive, late treatment studies are mixed with 70% positive effects, 78% of pre-exposure prophylaxis studies are positive, and 100% of post-exposure prophylaxis studies also report positive effects [2], [3].

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Newswise: UIC Awarded $6 Million to Develop Potential COVID-19 Treatment
Released: 28-Jul-2021 10:15 AM EDT
UIC Awarded $6 Million to Develop Potential COVID-19 Treatment
University of Illinois Chicago

Researchers at the University of Illinois Chicago are developing a potential treatment for COVID-19, thanks to a $6 million technology and therapeutic development award from the U.S. Department of Defense supporting pre-clinical animal studies.

Newswise: Don’t Let the Raging Virus Put Life in Jeopardy. Chula Recommends How to Build an Immunity for Your Heart Against Stress and Depression
Released: 28-Jul-2021 8:55 AM EDT
Don’t Let the Raging Virus Put Life in Jeopardy. Chula Recommends How to Build an Immunity for Your Heart Against Stress and Depression
Chulalongkorn University

Cumulative stress, denial, and chronic depression are the byproducts of the COVID-19 pandemic. The Center for Psychological Wellness, Chulalongkorn University recommends ways to cope by harnessing positive energy from our heart.

Newswise: Connect Chicago Initiative Expands Community COVID-19 Testing
Released: 27-Jul-2021 4:45 PM EDT
Connect Chicago Initiative Expands Community COVID-19 Testing
Rush University Medical Center

As COVID-19 cases rise in the U.S., Connect Chicago — new initiative between the Chicago Department of Public Health, Rush University Medical Center, and Esperanza Health Centers — is aiming to redouble testing efforts in Chicago communities that need it most.

Newswise: California State University to Implement COVID-19 Vaccination Requirement for Fall 2021 Term
Released: 27-Jul-2021 1:35 PM EDT
California State University to Implement COVID-19 Vaccination Requirement for Fall 2021 Term
California State University (CSU) Chancellor's Office

California State University to Implement COVID-19 Vaccination Requirement for Fall 2021 Term

Released: 27-Jul-2021 12:55 PM EDT
Behind the COVID-19 Diagnostic for Testing Hundreds of People at a Time
The Fannie and John Hertz Foundation

Hertz Fellow Cameron Myhrvold and colleagues are advancing research that started long before the pandemic.

Released: 27-Jul-2021 12:35 PM EDT
T cell response not critical for immune memory to SARS-CoV-2 or recovery from COVID-19
American Society for Microbiology (ASM)

New research conducted in monkeys reveals that T cells are not critical for the recovery of primates from acute COVID-19 infections.

Released: 27-Jul-2021 11:45 AM EDT
mRNA Vaccinations vs COVID-19 Risk in Teens – Vaccinations are Safer
Case Western Reserve University

Case Western Reserve University researchers have demonstrated that the risk for myocarditis/pericarditis (heart inflammation) among male teens (12-17) diagnosed with COVID-19 is nearly 6 times higher than their combined risk following first and second doses of an mRNA COVID-19 vaccination. The risk for myocarditis/pericarditis among girls (ages 12-17) is 21 times greater from COVID-19 than from vaccines.

Released: 27-Jul-2021 9:45 AM EDT
Twitter Study Tracks Early Days of COVID-19 Pandemic in U.S.
Binghamton University, State University of New York

Researchers at Binghamton University, State University of New York studied Twitter communications to understand the societal impact of COVID-19 in the United States during the early days of the pandemic.

Released: 27-Jul-2021 9:45 AM EDT
A First Report of COVID-19 Orbital Involvement Is Reported in the Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Wolters Kluwer Health: Lippincott

A severe skin infection in the orbital area (around the eye) may represent an unusual complication of COVID-19, according to a patient report published in The Journal of Craniofacial Surgery. The journal is published in the Lippincott portfolio by Wolters Kluwer.


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