Newswise — September 21, 2022In the year before total knee arthroplasty (TKA), patients incur considerable costs for nonoperative treatments and other procedures for osteoarthritis (OA) – raising questions about the value of those procedures, reports a study in The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery. The journal is published in the Lippincott portfolio in partnership with Wolters Kluwer.

The study shows "substantial variation in the type and cost of nonoperative procedures for patients with late-stage knee OA prior to TKA," according to the report by Eric L. Smith, MD, of New England Baptist Hospital, Boston, and colleagues.

Estimated costs of $2.4 billion over 3 years for nonoperative procedures before TKA

Using nationwide commercial insurance databases, the researchers analyzed claims for nearly 24,500 patients who underwent primary TKA in 2018 and 2019. The study examined the types and costs of nonoperative procedures in the months leading up to TKA.

Average costs for nonoperative procedures in the year before TKA were $1,355 per patient. Knee imaging studies were the most common procedure overall, performed in about 96% of patients. Intra-articular steroid injections were the most frequent treatment procedure, performed in 54%. Bracing was the least common nonoperative treatment, performed in approximately 8% of patients.

Intra-articular injection of hyaluronic acid, excluding professional administration fees, was the most costly procedure: performed in about 13% of patients, it made up 10% of total costs. By comparison, steroid injections were performed in more than half of patients, but accounted to just over 1% of costs. Physical therapy was used in about 27% of patients and accounted for about 17% of costs.

Most patients underwent at least two nonoperative treatments, while more than one-third underwent three or more. Costs increased with time between diagnosis and surgery, exceeding $2,000 in patients with a 12-month duration before undergoing TKA.

Women had higher total costs for nonoperative treatment, with the greatest differences in physical therapy and prescription of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Men had higher costs for opioids. Procedures and costs also varied by region, with the Northeast region having the highest average cost ($1,740).

TKA is a highly effective and cost-efficient treatment for knee OA. The researchers note that decisions about TKA can be "extremely complicated," involving factors related to patients, providers, and insurers. For example, insurers may require some period of nonoperative treatment before authorizing coverage for TKA. With the national focus on reducing costs while delivering high-value care, the requirement of nonoperative treatment in the months before TKA warrants evaluation.

Extrapolated to the 600,000 TKAs performed each year in the United States, the total costs of nonoperative treatment are estimated at $2.4 billion over a 3-year period and are likely to increase in the future. The authors point out some limitations of their study, mainly related to the use of insurance claims data.

"For patients who eventually undergo TKA, the cost-effectiveness of these nonoperative treatments right before TKA needs to be carefully considered as the health-care system transitions toward a value-based model," Dr. Smith and coauthors conclude. They also note that some nonoperative treatments – for example, intra-articular steroid or hyaluronic acid injections or bracing – do not have strong evidence of effectiveness. The researchers call for further studies focusing on the benefits of nonoperative treatments at different stages of knee OA.

Click here to read “Costs of Nonoperative Procedures for Knee Osteoarthritis in the Year Prior to Primary Total Knee Arthroplasty“

DOI: 10.2106/JBJS.21.01415


About The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery (JBJS) has been the most valued source of information for orthopaedic surgeons and researchers for over 125 years and is the gold standard in peer-reviewed scientific information in the field. A core journal and essential reading for general as well as specialist orthopaedic surgeons worldwide, The Journal publishes evidence-based research to enhance the quality of care for orthopaedic patients. Standards of excellence and high quality are maintained in everything we do, from the science of the content published to the customer service we provide. JBJS is an independent, non-profit journal.

About Wolters Kluwer

Wolters Kluwer (WKL) is a global leader in professional information, software solutions, and services for the clinicians, nurses, accountants, lawyers, and tax, finance, audit, risk, compliance, and regulatory sectors. We help our customers make critical decisions every day by providing expert solutions that combine deep domain knowledge with advanced technology and services.

Wolters Kluwer reported 2021 annual revenues of €4.8 billion. The group serves customers in over 180 countries, maintains operations in over 40 countries, and employs approximately 19,800 people worldwide. The company is headquartered in Alphen aan den Rijn, the Netherlands.

Wolters Kluwer provides trusted clinical technology and evidence-based solutions that engage clinicians, patients, researchers and students in effective decision-making and outcomes across healthcare. We support clinical effectiveness, learning and research, clinical surveillance and compliance, as well as data solutions. For more information about our solutions, visit and follow us on LinkedIn and Twitter @WKHealth.

For more information, visit, follow us on Twitter, Facebook, LinkedIn, and YouTube.

Journal Link: The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery