Wolters Kluwer Health: Lippincott

County and ZIP code-level data show ‘stark social inequities’ in COVID-19

Newswise — September 22, 2020 – A geocoding approach – linking routinely collected public health data to neighborhood socioeconomic factors – shows consistently higher rates of COVID-19 illness and death among people living in more-disadvantaged communities, reports a study in the November/December Journal of Public Health Management and Practice. The journal is published in the Lippincott portfolio by Wolters Kluwer.

“Our study provides evidence of stark social inequities in COVID-19 outcomes at both the county and ZIP Code levels in the United States,” comments Jarvis T. Chen, ScD, of Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston. “These marked disparities speak to how the COVID-19 pandemic is affecting vulnerable populations and exacerbating existing health inequities.”

Socioeconomic Factors Affecting COVID-19 Outcomes – Geocoding Provides New Insights

Dr. Chen and coauthor Nancy Krieger, PhD, analyzed county- and ZIP Code-level data on COVID-19 outcomes – deaths, confirmed cases, and percent positive cases – in New York City and Illinois, as of May 5, 2020. At that time, New York and Illinois were among the “hotspots” for COVID-19 cases and deaths in the United States.

The researchers applied an established geocoding method to analyze COVID-19 outcomes in terms of key neighborhood socioeconomic factors, including the percentage of residents living in poverty, percentage with household crowding, and percentage of persons of color (other than non-Hispanic white).

These and other area-based socioeconomic measures (ABSMs) have been shown to be strong indicators of disparities across a wide range of health outcomes. The ASBMs were developed as part of the Public Health Disparities Geocoding Project, established to address the lack of information on  socioeconomic factors in most public health surveillance data.

The analysis showed consistently higher levels of COVID-19 outcomes for residents of more socioeconomically disadvantaged areas. County-level data showed higher rates of COVID-19 deaths in areas with more people living in poverty, increased household crowding, and more people of color. The COVID-19 death rate was about five times higher than in counties with the highest percentage of people of color.

Analysis of fine-resolution ZIP Code data showed higher rates of confirmed COVID-19 cases for all ABSMs. In Illinois, the rate of COVID-19 diagnosis was five times higher in ZIP Codes with the highest percentage of people of color.

ZIP Code data from New York City also showed similar disparities, even with the City’s much higher infection rates. The rate of positive COVID-19 tests was more than 60 percent higher in ZIP Codes with the highest percentage of people with poverty-level incomes.

There’s an urgent need for real-time data to help in identifying community groups at highest risk of COVID-19 infection, serious illness, and death. Routinely collected public health data include little or no information on socioeconomic factors that can have an important impact on COVID-19 risks. Data on race/ethnicity is more often collected but is missing for many patients.

Geocoding health records and linking them to US Census data on neighborhood factors, including the use of ABSMs, can compute valid estimates of socioeconomic disparities in health. “Looking across the US, people living in the most impoverished, crowded, and racially and economically polarized counties are experiencing substantially elevated rates of COVID-19 infection and death,” Drs. Chen and Krieger write.

State and local health departments can easily apply the same methods to routinely collected surveillance data using an Excel spreadsheet or R code available from the authors’ website: https://www.hsph.harvard.edu/thegeocodingproject/covid-19-resources/.

Dr. Chen comments: “Our cost-effective straightforward methodology and results can motivate and guide state and local health departments to generate data relevant to monitoring inequities in COVID-19 outcomes and guiding resource allocation to mitigate these inequities.”

Click here to read “Revealing the Unequal Burden of COVID-19 by Income, Race/Ethnicity, and Household Crowding.”

DOI: 10.1097/PHH.0000000000001263

###

About Journal of Public Health Management and Practice

Journal of Public Health Management and Practice publishes articles which focus on evidence-based public health practice and research. The journal is a bi-monthly peer-reviewed publication guided by a multidisciplinary editorial board of administrators, practitioners and scientists. Journal of Public Health Management and Practice publishes in a wide range of population health topics including research to practice; emergency preparedness; bioterrorism; infectious disease surveillance; environmental health; community health assessment; chronic disease prevention and health promotion; and academic-practice linkages.

About Wolters Kluwer

Wolters Kluwer (WKL) is a global leader in professional information, software solutions, and services for the clinicians, nurses, accountants, lawyers, and tax, finance, audit, risk, compliance, and regulatory sectors. We help our customers make critical decisions every day by providing expert solutions that combine deep domain knowledge with advanced technology and services.

Wolters Kluwer reported 2019 annual revenues of €4.6 billion. The group serves customers in over 180 countries, maintains operations in over 40 countries, and employs approximately 19,000 people worldwide. The company is headquartered in Alphen aan den Rijn, the Netherlands.

Wolters Kluwer provides trusted clinical technology and evidence-based solutions that engage clinicians, patients, researchers and students with advanced clinical decision support, learning and research and clinical intelligence. For more information about our solutions, visit https://www.wolterskluwer.com/en/health and follow us on LinkedIn and Twitter @WKHealth.

For more information, visit www.wolterskluwer.com, follow us on TwitterFacebookLinkedIn, and YouTube.




Filters close

Showing results

110 of 3817
Released: 30-Oct-2020 6:35 PM EDT
UCLA Health infectious disease experts tout critical role mask wearing plays in limiting spread of COVID-19
University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), Health Sciences

With thousands of new cases logged daily and a vaccine to fight COVID-19 still in development, UCLA Health infectious disease experts are encouraging people to continue to wear masks as the best method of protecting against virus transmission.

Released: 30-Oct-2020 5:35 PM EDT
Surgeon General expects COVID-19 vaccine to be available by year’s end
University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), Health Sciences

In a wide-ranging talk with UCLA Health physicians, Wednesday, Oct. 28, United States Surgeon General Jerome Adams, MD, MPH, addressed the politicization of the pandemic and the means of containing the spread of COVID-19. He also offered hope that a vaccine for the virus will be available by year’s end.

Released: 30-Oct-2020 4:15 PM EDT
Study shows myocarditis linked to COVID-19 not as common as believed
Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center - New Orleans

A study conducted by Richard Vander Heide, MD, PhD, Professor and Director of Pathology Research at LSU Health New Orleans School of Medicine, and Marc Halushka, MD, PhD, Professor of Pathology at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, suggests myocarditis caused by COVID-19 may be a relatively rare occurrence.

access_time Embargo lifts in 2 days
Embargo will expire: 3-Nov-2020 11:00 AM EST Released to reporters: 30-Oct-2020 3:00 PM EDT

A reporter's PressPass is required to access this story until the embargo expires on 3-Nov-2020 11:00 AM EST The Newswise PressPass gives verified journalists access to embargoed stories. Please log in to complete a presspass application. If you have not yet registered, please Register. When you fill out the registration form, please identify yourself as a reporter in order to advance to the presspass application form.

Newswise: 247373_web.jpg
Released: 30-Oct-2020 2:30 PM EDT
Researcher develops app to reach Black community with COVID-19 information
University of Cincinnati

A University of Cincinnati cardiologist is partnering with researchers in St. Louis and rural Georgia to develop a smartphone app that will deliver COVID-19 information and education that is targeted toward Black communities.

Newswise: 247467_web.jpg
Released: 30-Oct-2020 1:55 PM EDT
SARS-CoV-2 might attack red marrow and block new erythrocytes formation
Far Eastern Federal University

Specialists from the Department of Fundamental Medicine of Far Eastern Federal University (FEFU) with Russian and Japanese colleagues have probed into mechanisms of COVID-19 inside-the-body distribution linked to erythrocytes damaging. According to researchers, the virus might attack red marrow, thus being detrimental not only for erythrocytes in the bloodstream but also for the process of the formation of the new ones.

Released: 30-Oct-2020 12:40 PM EDT
Government of Canada awards $2.5M to McMaster University to support the COVID-19 border study with McMaster HealthLabs
McMaster University

McMaster University has been awarded $2.5 million from the Government of Canada to support the McMaster HealthLabs (MHL) Canadian International COVID-19 Surveillance Border Study at Toronto Pearson International Airport, being run in partnership with Air Canada and the Greater Toronto Airports Authority (GTAA).

Released: 30-Oct-2020 12:00 PM EDT
5 Big Questions on Health Care and COVID-19
University of Virginia Darden School of Business

The coronavirus pandemic has once again thrust the unusual state of American health care into the spotlight. With a presidential election that could have a dramatic impact on the state of health care for millions on 3 November, Professor Vivian Riefberg considers the state of the industry.

Newswise: Infection by Confection: COVID-19 and the Risk of Trick-or-Treating
Released: 30-Oct-2020 11:05 AM EDT
Infection by Confection: COVID-19 and the Risk of Trick-or-Treating
University of California San Diego Health

Researchers determined that COVID-19 transmission risk via Halloween candies is low, even when they are handled by infected people, but handwashing and disinfecting collected sweets reduces risk even further.

Newswise:Video Embedded third-spike-in-covid-19-cases-plus-the-vaccine-trials-live-expert-panel-for-october-29-3pm-edt
VIDEO
Released: 30-Oct-2020 9:40 AM EDT
TRANSCRIPT AND VIDEO AVAILABLE: "Third spike" in COVID-19 cases, plus the vaccine trials: Live Expert Panel for October 29
Newswise

"Third spike" in COVID-19 cases, plus the vaccine trials: Live Expert Panel for October 29, 3PM EDT


Showing results

110 of 3817

close
1.05647