Curated News: Scientific Reports

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Embargo will expire: 10-Aug-2020 6:00 AM EDT Released to reporters: 7-Aug-2020 10:05 AM EDT

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Released: 7-Aug-2020 9:50 AM EDT
New Zealand's Southern Alps glacier melt has doubled
University of Leeds

Glaciers in the Southern Alps of New Zealand have lost more ice mass since pre-industrial times than remains today, according to a new study.

Newswise:Video Embedded targeted-ultrasound-for-noninvasive-diagnosis-of-brain-cancer
VIDEO
Released: 6-Aug-2020 1:40 PM EDT
Targeted ultrasound for noninvasive diagnosis of brain cancer
Washington University in St. Louis

Brain tumors are typically diagnosed using MRI imaging, as taking a sample for a tissue biopsy is risky and may not be possible due to tumor location or a patient's health. Researchers are developing a method to diagnose brain tumors without any incisions.

4-Aug-2020 4:05 PM EDT
Genes Related to Down Syndrome Abnormalities May Protect Against Solid Tumors
Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago

Scientists from Stanley Manne Children’s Research Institute at Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children’s Hospital of Chicago discovered that a set of genes with decreased expression in individuals with Down syndrome may lead to clinical abnormalities in this population, such as poor muscle development and heart valve problems. Impairment in these same genes may also protect people with Down syndrome from developing solid tumors. Their findings were published in Scientific Reports.

Newswise: Monkeying around: Study finds older primates father far fewer babies
Released: 5-Aug-2020 7:25 AM EDT
Monkeying around: Study finds older primates father far fewer babies
Washington University in St. Louis

Infertility is a worldwide clinical problem for human health that affects 8 to 12 percent of couples. A new study from Washington University in St. Louis has implications for understanding some age-related aspects of male reproductive health in primates, including humans. Older male rhesus monkeys sire fewer offspring, even though they appear to be mating as much as younger monkeys with similarly high social status.

Newswise: Between shark and ray: The evolutionary advantage of the sea angels
Released: 4-Aug-2020 8:35 AM EDT
Between shark and ray: The evolutionary advantage of the sea angels
University of Vienna

Angel sharks are sharks, but with their peculiarly flat body they rather resemble rays. An international research team led by Faviel A. López-Romero and Jürgen Kriwet of the Institute of Palaeontology has now investigated the origin of this body shape. The results illustrate how these sharks evolved into highly specialised, exclusively bottom-dwelling ambush predators and thus also contribute to a better understanding of their threat from environmental changes.

Released: 3-Aug-2020 2:40 PM EDT
A simpler, high-accuracy method to detect rare circulating tumor cells in blood samples
Lehigh University

Metastasis - the development of tumor growth at a secondary site - is responsible for the majority of cancer-related deaths.

Released: 30-Jul-2020 5:50 PM EDT
Study sheds light on the evolution of the earliest dinosaurs
Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

The classic dinosaur family tree has two subdivisions of early dinosaurs at its base: the Ornithischians, or bird-hipped dinosaurs, which include the later Triceratops and Stegosaurus; and the Saurischians, or lizard-hipped dinosaurs, such as Brontosaurus and Tyrannosaurus.

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Released: 30-Jul-2020 5:25 PM EDT
Whale 'snot' reveals likely poor health during migration
University of New South Wales

Whale-watching season is delighting the viewing public along the east Australian coast but while it's a boon for the tourism industry, for the majestic humpback whale it's potentially a time of less optimal health.

Newswise: Botox Injections May Lessen Depression
28-Jul-2020 4:20 PM EDT
Botox Injections May Lessen Depression
University of California San Diego Health

By analyzing the FDA database of adverse drug effects, UC San Diego researchers discovered that people who received Botox injections — not just in the forehead — reported depression significantly less often than patients undergoing different treatments for the same conditions.

Newswise: New machine learning method allows hospitals to share patient data -- privately
Released: 28-Jul-2020 3:50 PM EDT
New machine learning method allows hospitals to share patient data -- privately
Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania

Penn Medicine researchers have shown that federated learning is successful specifically in the context of brain imaging, by being able to analyze magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of brain tumor patients and distinguish healthy brain tissue from cancerous regions.

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27-Jul-2020 9:00 AM EDT
Medieval medicine remedy could provide new treatment for modern day infections
University of Warwick

To fight antibiotic resistance more antimicrobials are needed to treat bacterial biofilms, which protect an infection from antibiotics

Released: 27-Jul-2020 11:10 AM EDT
Tiny titanium wields great power to shape crystals
Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (MIPT)

Researchers from MIPT and their colleagues from Ural Federal University have combined optical and acoustic approaches and found that incorporating titanium atoms into barium hexaferrite leads to an unexpected substructure forming in the crystal lattice. The resulting material is promising for ultrafast computer memory applications. The findings were published in Scientific Reports.

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Released: 22-Jul-2020 12:15 PM EDT
Plastics found in sea-bed sharks
University of Exeter

Microplastics have been found in the guts of sharks that live near the seabed off the UK coast.

Newswise: Aerosol modeling targets sinus inflammation
Released: 21-Jul-2020 12:15 PM EDT
Aerosol modeling targets sinus inflammation
South Dakota State University

New instructions for using nasal sprays may help deliver at least eight times more inflammation-reducing medicine to diseased sinus tissues.

Released: 20-Jul-2020 7:35 PM EDT
Archaeologists use tooth enamel protein to show sex of human remains
University of California, Davis

A new method for estimating the biological sex of human remains based on reading protein sequences rather than DNA has been used to study an archaeological site in Northern California.

Newswise:Video Embedded new-insight-into-the-origin-of-water-on-the-earth
VIDEO
Released: 17-Jul-2020 8:05 PM EDT
New insight into the origin of water on the earth
Hokkaido University

Scientists have found the interstellar organic matter could produce an abundant supply of water by heating, suggesting that organic matter could be the source of terrestrial water.

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Released: 17-Jul-2020 2:35 PM EDT
K-State study first to show SARS-CoV-2 is not transmitted by mosquitoes
Kansas State University

A new study by Kansas State University researchers is the first to confirm that SARS-CoV-2 cannot be transmitted to people by mosquitoes.

Released: 16-Jul-2020 6:05 AM EDT
HIV Alone Not a Risk Factor for Cavities in Children
Rutgers University-New Brunswick

Recent studies indicate HIV infection heightens the risk of dental cavities – but a Rutgers researcher has found evidence that the risk of cavities comes not from HIV itself but from a weakened immune system, which could be caused by other diseases.

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Released: 13-Jul-2020 1:05 PM EDT
Parasite infestations revealed by tiny chicken backpacks
University of California, Riverside

Blood-feeding livestock mites can be detected with wearable sensor technology nicknamed "Fitbits for chickens."

Newswise:Video Embedded like-humans-beluga-whales-form-social-networks-beyond-family-ties
VIDEO
Released: 10-Jul-2020 5:05 PM EDT
Like Humans, Beluga Whales Form Social Networks Beyond Family Ties
Florida Atlantic University

A groundbreaking study is the first to analyze the relationship between group behaviors, group type, group dynamics, and kinship of beluga whales in 10 locations across the Arctic. Results show that not only do beluga whales regularly interact with close kin, including close maternal kin, they also frequently associate with more distantly related and unrelated individuals. Findings will improve the understanding of why some species are social, how individuals learn from group members and how animal cultures emerge.

Newswise: A New Look at Deep-Sea Microbes
Released: 9-Jul-2020 1:45 PM EDT
A New Look at Deep-Sea Microbes
University of Delaware

Microbes found deeper in the ocean are believed to have slow population turnover rates and low amounts of available energy. But microbial communities found deeper in seafloor sediments and around hydrocarbon seepage sites have now been found to have more energy available and a higher population turnover. Deeper sediments in the seepages are most likely heavily impacted by the material coming up from the bottom, which means that the seep could be supporting a larger amount of biomass than previously thought.

Released: 8-Jul-2020 1:40 PM EDT
UBC research shows hearing persists at end of life
University of British Columbia

Hearing is widely thought to be the last sense to go in the dying process. Now UBC researchers have evidence that some people may still be able to hear while in an unresponsive state at the end of their life.

Newswise:Video Embedded study-reveals-science-behind-traditional-mezcal-making-technique
VIDEO
Released: 8-Jul-2020 9:50 AM EDT
Study reveals science behind traditional mezcal-making technique
Brown University

Artisanal makers of mezcal have a tried and true way to tell when the drink has been distilled to the right alcohol level.

Newswise: The science of sound: Researchers suggest use of artificial tones in perception experiments could be missing the mark
Released: 7-Jul-2020 10:35 AM EDT
The science of sound: Researchers suggest use of artificial tones in perception experiments could be missing the mark
McMaster University

Researchers at McMaster University who study how the brain processes sound have discovered the common practice of using artificial tones in perception experiments could mean scientists are overlooking important and interesting discoveries in the field of brain research

Newswise: Newly discovered pathogen in NY apples causes bitter rot disease
Released: 6-Jul-2020 1:50 PM EDT
Newly discovered pathogen in NY apples causes bitter rot disease
Cornell University

In a study of New York state apple orchards, Cornell University plant pathologists have identified a new fungal pathogen that causes bitter rot disease in apples.

Released: 1-Jul-2020 10:25 AM EDT
Moffitt Researchers Develop Tool to Detect Patients at High Risk for Poor Lung Cancer Outcomes
Moffitt Cancer Center

In a new study published in Nature Scientific Reports, Moffitt Cancer Center researchers have shown how the use of radiomics can improve lung cancer screening by identifying early stage lung cancer patients who may be at high risk for poorer outcomes, and therefore require aggressive follow-up and/or adjuvant therapy.

Newswise: Ancient Maya Reservoirs Contained Toxic Pollution
Released: 29-Jun-2020 4:50 PM EDT
Ancient Maya Reservoirs Contained Toxic Pollution
University of Cincinnati

Mercury, algae made water undrinkable in heart of city

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Released: 29-Jun-2020 1:10 PM EDT
Artificial intelligence identifies, locates seizures in real-time
Washington University in St. Louis

Research from the McKelvey School of Engineering at Washington University in St. Louis has shown that understanding brain activity as a network instead of readings from an EEG allow for more accurate and efficient detection of seizures in real-time.

Released: 26-Jun-2020 10:35 AM EDT
Designer Peptides Show Potential for Blocking Viruses, Encourage Future Study
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI)

Chemically engineered peptides, designed and developed by a team of researchers at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, could prove valuable in the battle against some of the most persistent human health challenges. The team’s findings, recently published in Nature Scientific Reports, demonstrate how researchers can engineer peptides capable of selectively and specifically binding to polysialic acid (PSA) — a unique carbohydrate that is present on critical human cells and plays a key role in various physiological and pathological processes, including neurological development and disease progression.

25-Jun-2020 7:05 AM EDT
Planning for a growing elderly population
International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis

A new study investigated the prevalence of activity limitations among older adults in 23 low- and middle-income countries, to help policymakers prepare for the challenges associated with the world’s aging population.

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Released: 25-Jun-2020 12:10 PM EDT
Variability in natural speech is challenging for the dyslexic brain
University of Helsinki

A new study brings neural-level evidence that the continuous variation in natural speech makes the discrimination of phonemes challenging for adults suffering from developmental reading-deficit dyslexia.

Newswise:Video Embedded x-ray-vision-and-eavesdropping-ensure-quality
VIDEO
Released: 25-Jun-2020 8:15 AM EDT
X-ray vision and eavesdropping ensure quality
Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology

With an X-ray experiment at the European Synchrotron ESRF in Grenoble (France), Empa researchers were able to demonstrate how well their real-time acoustic monitoring of laser weld seams works. With almost 90 percent reliability, they detected the formation of unwanted pores that impair the quality of weld seams. Thanks to a special evaluation method based on artificial intelligence (AI), the detection process is completed in just 70 milliseconds.

Released: 22-Jun-2020 5:30 PM EDT
Genetic study of Arabian horses challenges some common beliefs about the ancient breed
Cornell University

A study involving Arabian horses from 12 countries found that some populations maintained a larger degree of genetic diversity and that the breed did not contribute genetically to the modern-day Thoroughbred, contrary to popular thought.

18-Jun-2020 7:35 AM EDT
The Rate We Acquire Genetic Mutations Could Help Predict Lifespan, Fertility
University of Utah Health

Differences in the rate that genetic mutations accumulate in healthy young adults could help predict remaining lifespan in both sexes and the remaining years of fertility in women, according to University of Utah Health scientists. Their study, believed to be the first of its kind, found that young adults who acquired fewer mutations over time lived about five years longer than those who acquired them more rapidly.

18-Jun-2020 11:55 AM EDT
Matching-commitment agreements to incentivize climate action
International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis

A new study highlights a different approach to designing an international climate agreement that would incentivize countries to cooperate.

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Released: 18-Jun-2020 1:40 PM EDT
Antioxidant agent may prevent chronic kidney disease and Parkinson's disease
Osaka University

Oxidative stress is the result of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and can be damaging to cells and tissues.

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Released: 17-Jun-2020 1:25 PM EDT
Bouillon fortified with a new iron compound could help reduce iron deficiency
Chalmers Technology Institute

Iron fortification of food is a cost-effective method of preventing iron deficiency. But finding iron compounds that are easily absorbed by the intestine without compromising food quality is a major challenge.

Newswise:Video Embedded exercise-offers-profound-benefits-for-friedreich-s-ataxia-research-suggests
VIDEO
Released: 16-Jun-2020 9:00 AM EDT
Exercise offers ‘profound’ benefits for Friedreich’s ataxia, research suggests
University of Virginia Health System

A top exercise researcher is urging clinical trials of exercise in patients with Friedreich’s ataxia after finding that physical activity has a “profound” protective effect in mouse models of the debilitating genetic disease.

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Released: 15-Jun-2020 11:55 AM EDT
Ancient crocodiles walked on two legs like dinosaurs
University of Queensland

An international research team has been stunned to discover that some species of ancient crocodiles walked on their two hind legs like dinosaurs and measured over three meters in length.

Released: 12-Jun-2020 9:05 AM EDT
Celebrating 20 Years of Smashing Success at RHIC
Brookhaven National Laboratory

Let’s wind back the clock and take a look at the lead-up to RHIC’s first collisions with these excerpts from the Brookhaven Bulletin. As you’ll see, getting a complicated particle collider up and running takes a lot of teamwork and coordinated effort. And it isn’t always a straight-line path!

Newswise: Could We Run Out of Sand? Scientists Adjust How Grains Are Measured
10-Jun-2020 9:30 AM EDT
Could We Run Out of Sand? Scientists Adjust How Grains Are Measured
University of Sydney

New models will help manage impacts of sea-level rise on vulnerable coast

Released: 9-Jun-2020 8:05 AM EDT
Study Reveals Birth Defects Caused by Flame Retardant
University of Georgia

A new study from the University of Georgia has shown that exposure to a now-banned flame retardant can alter the genetic code in sperm, leading to major health defects in children of exposed parents.

Released: 2-Jun-2020 1:25 PM EDT
Tulane scientists find a switch to flip and turn off breast cancer growth and metastasis
Tulane University

Researchers at Tulane University School of Medicine identified a gene that causes an aggressive form of breast cancer to rapidly grow. More importantly, they have also discovered a way to “turn it off” and inhibit cancer from occurring. The animal study results have been so compelling that the team is now working on FDA approval to begin clinical trials and has published details in the journal Scientific Reports.

Newswise:Video Embedded climate-change-an-imminent-threat-to-glass-sponge-reefs
VIDEO
Released: 1-Jun-2020 4:25 PM EDT
Climate change an imminent threat to glass sponge reefs
University of British Columbia

Warming ocean temperatures and acidification drastically reduce the skeletal strength and filter-feeding capacity of glass sponges, according to new UBC research.

Newswise: UNH Researchers Find Wildfires Can Alter Arctic Watersheds for 50 Years
Released: 28-May-2020 12:30 PM EDT
UNH Researchers Find Wildfires Can Alter Arctic Watersheds for 50 Years
University of New Hampshire

Climate change has contributed to the increase in the number of wildfires in the Arctic where it can dramatically shift stream chemistry and potentially harm both ecosystems and humans. Researchers at the University of New Hampshire have found that some aftereffects, like decreased carbon and increased nitrogen, can last up to five decades and could have major implications on vital waterways.

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Released: 22-May-2020 12:50 PM EDT
First fossil nursery of the great white shark discovered
University of Vienna

The great white shark is one of the most charismatic, but also one of the most infamous sharks.

Newswise: First fossil nursery of the great white shark discovered
Released: 22-May-2020 7:50 AM EDT
First fossil nursery of the great white shark discovered
University of Vienna

An international research team led by Jaime A. Villafaña from the Institute of Palaeontology at the University of Vienna discovered the first fossil nursery area of the great white shark, Carcharodon carcharias in Chile. This discovery provides a better understanding of the evolutionary success of the largest top predator in today's oceans in the past and could contribute to the protection of these endangered animals. The study is published in the journal Scientific Reports.

Newswise: Measuring Blood Damage
Released: 21-May-2020 12:05 PM EDT
Measuring Blood Damage
University of Delaware

Red blood cells sometimes rupture when blood is sent through faulty equipment, such as a dialysis machine. This is called hemolysis. Hemolysis also can occur during blood work when blood is drawn too quickly through a needle, leading to defective laboratory samples. University of Delaware mechanical engineer Tyler Van Buren and collaborating colleagues at Princeton University have developed a method to monitor blood damage in real-time.


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