Embargoed AJPH research: Police-related deaths, homicide in Mexico, tobacco use in young adults, 1970s heroin intervention


To request copies of articles or for information on scheduling interviews with an expert, please contact Megan Lowry.

EMBARGOED UNTIL Thursday, January 24, 4 p.m. ET

American Journal of Public Health March issue research highlights:

Police-related deaths highest in low-income neighborhoods, communities of color

Newswise — This study found police-related death rates were highest in neighborhoods with the greatest concentrations of low-income residents and residents of color. For non-Hispanic blacks, researchers found that the risk of police-related death was greater in the quintile of neighborhoods with the highest concentration of non-Hispanic white residents than in neighborhoods with relatively higher concentrations of residents of color.

Researchers also found that groups whose rates of police-related deaths exceeded that of the total population included those ages 25-34, men, non-Hispanic blacks, and American Indians/Alaska Natives. In terms of city population, the death rate was highest for small cities with fewer than 10,000 residents.

Researchers estimated the association between rates of police-related deaths and neighborhood residential segregation by income, race and ethnicity or both combined. The study used data from The Guardian newspaper, census data and the calculated Index of Concentration at the Extremes as a segregation measure.

[Author Contact: Justin M. Feldman, NYU School of Medicine, New York, New York. “Police-Related Deaths and Neighborhood Economic and Racial/Ethnic Polarization, United States, 2015–2016”].

Homicide stagnates life expectancy in Mexico

This study found that 10 years into the upsurge of violence, Mexico has not been able to reduce the homicide levels to those before 2005. Homicides for those ages 15-49 had the largest effect in slowing down male life expectancy and life span inequality. Life expectancy and life span inequality stagnated since 2005 for young men at the national level. In some states, males live shorter lives than in 2005, on average, and experience higher uncertainty in their eventual death.

Male life expectancy at age 15 increased by more than twice in 1995 to 2005 (1.17 years) than in 2005 to 2015 (0.55 years). Life span inequality decreased by more than half a year for males in 1995 to 2005, whereas in 2005 to 2015 the reduction was about 4 times smaller. Between 2005 and 2015, three states in the north experienced life expectancy losses while five states experienced increased life span inequality

[Author Contact: José Manuel Aburto, Interdisciplinary Center on Population Dynamics, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark, and the Lifespan Inequalities research group at Max-Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany. “Upsurge of Homicides and Its Impact on Life Expectancy and Life Span Inequality in Mexico, 2005–2015”].

While use of multiple tobacco products decline as young adults age, cigarette use continues

In this study of over 2,000 young adults in Texas, researchers found a statistically significant decline in polytobacco use (use of two or more products) from ages 18-28. There were also statistically significant declines in ENDS, hookah and cigar use but not in smokeless tobacco use, for which use was negligible, or in cigarette use. Importantly, cigarettes were the most used product at virtually all ages.

Authors concluded that young adults may mature out of polytobacco use with increasing age but they may continue to use some products, most notably cigarettes, potentially the most toxic and addictive tobacco and nicotine product.

The research noted that although all types of tobacco and nicotine products should be included in targeted efforts, a continued focus on preventing and reducing cigarette use is vital, as cigarette use was high and stable across young adulthood, and cigarettes are likely the product with the greatest potential for long-term negative health outcomes.

[Author Contact: Alexandra Loukas, University of Texas at Austin, Department of Kinesiology & Health Education, Austin, Texas. “Trajectories of Tobacco and Nicotine Use Across Young Adulthood, Texas, 2014–2017”].

Curb Heroin in Plants (C.H.I.P.): Revisiting a mid-1970s intervention into workplace heroin addiction created and led by Detroit autoworkers

This article analyzes archival records to revisit Curb Heroin In Plants (C.H.I.P.), a public health intervention focusing on drug dependence that was created and led by Detroit, Michigan, autoworkers during the mid-1970s. Responding to widespread heroin use in Detroit auto plants, C.H.I.P. combined methadone maintenance with counseling on and off the job to treat heroin dependence while supporting autoworkers in continuing in employment and family life. Although C.H.I.P. ultimately failed, it was a promising attempt to transcend medical/punitive approaches and treat those with substance use disorder in a nonstigmatizing way, with attention to the workplace dimensions of their disorder and recovery.

The author of this analytic essay argues that revisiting C.H.I.P. speaks to current public health debates about the intersection between the workplace and harmful drug use and how to create effective interventions and policies that are mindful of this intersection. For historians, C.H.I.P. is a valuable example of the crucial role of workplace actors in the early war on drugs and of an early methadone program that was not strongly concerned with crime reduction but incorporated social externalities (specifically, job performance) to measure success.

[Author Contact: Jeremy Milloy, School for the Study of Canada: Trent University, Peterborough, Ontario, Canada. “Curb Heroin in Plants (C.H.I.P.): Revisiting a Mid-1970s Intervention into Workplace Heroin Addiction Created and Led by Detroit Autoworkers”].

Find a full list of AJPH research papers published online below:

  • History of Childhood Abuse in Populations Incarcerated in Canada: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
  • Police-Related Deaths: Racial/Ethnic Inequities and The Impact of Neighborhood Economic and Racial/Ethnic Polarization (United States, 2015-2016)
  • Trajectories of Tobacco and Nicotine Use Across Young Adulthood, Texas, 2014-2017
  • The Rates and Medical Necessity of Cesarean Delivery in The Era of The Two-Child Policy in Hubei And Gansu Provinces, China
  • Estimating the Number of People Who Inject Drugs in A Rural County in Appalachia
  • Upsurge of Homicides and Life Expectancy and Lifespan Inequality in Mexico, 2005-2015
  • Routine Assessment of Health Impacts of Local Transportation Plans: A Case Study from The City of Los Angeles
  • Funding for Abstinence-Only Education and Teen Pregnancy Prevention: Does State Ideology Affect Outcomes?
  • Examining Social-Ecological Factors in Developing the Louisville Metro Department of Public Health and Wellness Syringe Exchange Program
  • Criminal Justice Barriers to Treatment for Opioid Use Disorders in The United States: The Need for Public Health Advocacy
  • Impact of Medicaid Restrictions on Availability of Buprenorphine in Addiction Treatment Programs
  • Economic Benefit Of “Modern” Non-Emergency Medical Transportation (NEMT) That Utilizes Digital Transportation Networks
  • Using Animations of Risk Functions to Visualize Trends in US All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality, 1968-2016
  • A National Network of Public Health and Faith-Based Organizations to Increase Influenza Prevention Among Hard-To-Reach Populations
  • Emerging and Re-Emerging Aedes-Transmitted Arbovirus Infections in The Region of The Americas: Implications for Health Policy
  • Curb Heroin in Plants (C.H.I.P.): Revisiting A Mid-1970s Intervention into Workplace Heroin Addiction Created and Led by Detroit Autoworkers
  • Conflict of Interest Provisions in State Laws Governing Medical and Adult-Use Cannabis
  • Abortion Disclosure Laws and The First Amendment: The Broader Public Health Policy Implications of The Supreme Court’s Becerra Decision
  • Faith & Global Health Practice in Ebola & HIV Emergencies
  • Faithful Families, Thriving Communities: Bridging Faith and Health Through State-Level Partnerships
  • From Disaster Response to Community Recovery: Non-Governmental Entities, Government, And Public Health

The articles above will be published online January 24, 2019, at 4 p.m. ET by AJPH under “First Look.” “First Look” articles have undergone peer review, copyediting and approval by authors but have not yet been printed to paper or posted online by issue. AJPH is published by the American Public Health Association, and is available at www.ajph.org.

Complimentary online access to the Journal is available to credentialed members of the media. Address inquiries to Megan Lowry at APHA, 202-777-3913, or email her. A single print issue of the Journal is available for $35 from the Journal’s Subscriptions Department. If you are not a member of the press, a member of APHA or a subscriber, online single-issue access is $30, and online single-article access is $22 at www.ajph.org. For direct customer service, call 202-777-2516, or email us.

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The American Journal of Public Health is the monthly journal of the American Public Health Association. APHA champions the health of all people and all communities. We strengthen the public health profession. We speak out for public health issues and policies backed by science. We are the only organization that influences federal policy, has a nearly 150-year perspective and brings together members from all fields of public health. Visit www.apha.org

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