Newswise — February 21, 2022 – For men undergoing surgery to repair scarring in the urethra (urethroplasty), a new approach to pain management can reduce the need for strong opioid drugs without compromising pain control, reports a study in Urology Practice®, an Official Journal of the American Urological Association (AUA). The journal is published in the Lippincott portfolio by Wolters Kluwer.
"Over-prescribing of opioids for postoperative pain control has been a major contributor to the opioid epidemic,” comments senior author Boyd R. Viers, MD, of Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. "Our study suggests that a non-opioid care pathway is just as effective in keeping pain under control for men undergoing urethroplasty, while reducing or even eliminating opioid exposure."
Pathway controls urethroplasty pain with lower opioid doses
Urethroplasty is a common urologic procedure performed to repair scarring inside the urethra – most often caused by inflammation or trauma – which can block the flow of urine out of the body. Previous studies have suggested that opioids are over-prescribed for men undergoing urethroplasty, finding that patients often receive more pills than needed to control pain.
Dr. Viers and colleagues report their department's experience with a standardized, multimodal pain control pathway, developed in an effort to curb opioid over-prescription. The study included 116 men undergoing outpatient anterior arthroplasty between August 2017 and January 2021.
Beginning in October 2018, doctors shifted prescribing patterns from the typically-prescribed "strong" opioid drug oxycodone (group one) to the atypical or "weak" opioid tramadol (group two), which offers pain relief with fewer side effects. The new pathway also used a new, longer-lasting liposomal form of the local anesthetic bupivacaine, rather than standard bupivacaine.
After surgery, patients were instructed to use alternating doses of the over-the-counter drugs ibuprofen and acetaminophen for pain. They also received a supply of oxycodone or tramadol, to use as needed for uncontrolled "breakthrough" pain. Patients also received a medication called oxybutynin to prevent bladder spasms.
At 72 hours after surgery, both groups reported good pain control: median score of three on a zero-to-10 pain scale. Pain scores were unaffected by the location of the blockage in the urethra, whether a tissue graft was used, or whether the patients received standard or liposomal bupivacaine. However, patients taking tramadol in combination with liposomal bupivacaine had greater reductions in pain, compared to those taking oxycodone: 80% versus 50%.
Toward a 'narcotic-free' approach to postoperative pain control
Based on a standard measure converting opioid doses to "morphine equivalents," the median opioid dose was about half as much in patients receiving tramadol compared to oxycodone: 50 versus 112.5 milligrams.
The men used a median of just two opioid tablets, with nearly one-third of patients using no opioids at all. The researchers noted higher levels of postoperative opioid use (five or more tablets) in patients with previous opioid treatment and in younger patients.
Considering that patients in the oxycodone group were prescribed up to 15 tablets, the findings highlight the problem of opioid over-prescribing after male urethral surgery. Although opioid-reducing pathways have been developed for a wide range of surgical procedures, the new study is the first to focus on men undergoing urethroplasty.
"Even though tramadol is classified as a 'weak' opioid, we found it to be just as effective as the standard 'strong' opioid oxycodone in controlling pain after urethral surgery in men," Dr. Viers comments. "Ultimately, our goal is to develop approaches targeting multiple pain pathways, along with patient counseling, in order to transition to a fully narcotic-free pathway."
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About Urology Practice
An Official Journal of the American Urological Association (AUA), Urology Practice focuses on clinical trends, challenges and practice applications in the four areas of Business, Health Policy, the Specialty and Patient Care. Information that can be used in everyday practice will be provided to the urology community via peer-reviewed clinical practice articles (including best practices, reviews, clinical guidelines, select clinical trials, editorials and white papers), "research letters" (brief original studies with an important clinical message), the business of the practice of urology, urology health policy issues, urology education and training, as well as content for urology care team members.
About the American Urological Association
Founded in 1902 and headquartered near Baltimore, Maryland, the American Urological Association is a leading advocate for the specialty of urology, and has more than 23,000 members throughout the world. The AUA is a premier urologic association, providing invaluable support to the urologic community as it pursues its mission of fostering the highest standards of urologic care through education, research and the formulation of health care policy. To learn more about the AUA visit: www.auanet.org
About Wolters Kluwer
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Wolters Kluwer reported 2021 annual revenues of €4.8 billion. The group serves customers in over 180 countries, maintains operations in over 40 countries, and employs approximately 20,000 people worldwide. The company is headquartered in Alphen aan den Rijn, the Netherlands.