Abstract: Background Graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) is critical complication after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The immunosuppressants given to patients undergoing allogeneic HSCT disturb the microbiome and the host immune system, potentially leading to dysbiosis and inflammation, and may affect immune function and bone marrow transplantation. The intestinal microbiome is a target for the development of novel therapies for GvHD. Lactobacillus species are in widely used supplements to induce production of antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory factors. Methods We determined the effect of the combination of Lactobacillus acidophilus and FK506 on GvHD following major histocompatibility complex-mismatched bone marrow transplantation. Results The combination treatment suppressed IFN-γ and IL-17-producing T cell differentiation, but increased Foxp3+Treg differentiation and IL-10 production. Also, the combination treatment and combination treated-induced Treg cells modulated the proliferation of murine alloreactive T cells in vitro. Additionally, the combination treatment upregulated Treg-related genes—Nt5e, Foxp3, Ikzf2, Nrp1 and Itgb8—in murine CD4+-T cells. The combination treatment also alleviated GvHD clinically and histopathologically by controlling the effector T cell and Treg balance in vivo. Moreover, the combination treatment decreased Th17 differentiation significantly and significantly upregulated Foxp3 and IL-10 expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy controls and liver transplantation (LT) patients. Conclusions Therefore, the combination of L. acidophilus and FK506 is effective and safe for patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

Journal Link: 10.21203/rs.3.rs-1084019/v1 Journal Link: Publisher Website Journal Link: Downaload PDF Journal Link: Google Scholar