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Chemists ID Catalytic 'Key' for Converting CO2 to Methanol

Results from experiments and computational modeling studies that definitively identify the "active site" of a catalyst commonly used for making methanol from CO2 will guide the design of improved catalysts for transforming this pollutant to useful chemicals.

Cryo-Electron Microscopy Achieves Unprecedented Resolution Using New Computational Methods

Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM)--which enables the visualization of viruses, proteins, and other biological structures at the molecular level--is a critical tool used to advance biochemical knowledge. Now Berkeley Lab researchers have extended cryo-EM's impact further by developing a new computational algorithm instrumental in constructing a 3-D atomic-scale model of bacteriophage P22 for the first time.

New Study Maps Space Dust in 3-D

A new Berkeley Lab-led study provides detailed 3-D views of space dust in the Milky Way, which could help us understand the properties of this dust and how it affects views of distant objects.

Single-Angle Ptychography Allows 3D Imaging of Stressed Materials

Scientists have used a new X-ray diffraction technique called Bragg single-angle ptychography to get a clear picture of how planes of atoms shift and squeeze under stress.

New Feedback System Could Allow Greater Control Over Fusion Plasma

A physicist has created a new system that will let scientists control the energy and rotation of plasma in real time in a doughnut-shaped machine known as a tokamak.

Towards Super-Efficient, Ultra-Thin Silicon Solar Cells

Researchers from Ames Laboratory used supercomputers at NERSC to evaluate a novel approach for creating more energy-efficient ultra-thin crystalline silicon solar cells by optimizing nanophotonic light trapping.

Study IDs Link Between Sugar Signaling and Regulation of Oil Production in Plants

UPTON, NY--Even plants have to live on an energy budget. While they're known for converting solar energy into chemical energy in the form of sugars, plants have sophisticated biochemical mechanisms for regulating how they spend that energy. Making oils costs a lot. By exploring the details of this delicate energy balance, a group of scientists from the U.

High-Energy Electrons Probe Ultrafast Atomic Motion

A new technique synchronized high-energy electrons with an ultrafast laser pulse to probe how vibrational states of atoms change in time.

Rare Earth Recycling

A new energy-efficient separation of rare earth elements could provide a new domestic source of critical materials.

Two-Dimensional MXene Materials Get Their Close-Up

Researchers have long sought electrically conductive materials for economical energy-storage devices. Two-dimensional (2D) ceramics called MXenes are contenders.


Three SLAC Employees Awarded Lab's Highest Honor

At a March 7 ceremony, three employees of the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory were awarded the lab's highest honor ­- the SLAC Director's Award.

Dan Sinars Represents Sandia in First Energy Leadership Class

Dan Sinars, a senior manager in Sandia National Laboratories' pulsed power center, which built and operates the Z facility, is the sole representative from a nuclear weapons lab in a new Department of Energy leadership program that recently visited Sandia.

ORNL, HTS International Corporation to Collaborate on Manufacturing Research

HTS International Corporation and the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory have signed an agreement to explore potential collaborations in advanced manufacturing research.

Jefferson Lab Director Honored with Energy Secretary Award

Hugh Montgomery, director of the Department of Energy's Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab), was awarded The Secretary's Distinguished Service Award by the Secretary of Energy earlier this year.

New Projects to Make Geothermal Energy More Economically Attractive

Geothermal energy, a clean, renewable source of energy produced by the heat of the earth, provides about 6 percent of California's total power. That number could be much higher if associated costs were lower. Now scientists at the Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) have launched two California Energy Commission-funded projects aimed at making geothermal energy more cost-effective to deploy and operate.

Southern Research Project Advances Novel CO2 Utilization Strategy

The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Fossil Energy has awarded Southern Research nearly $800,000 for a project that targets a more cost-efficient and environmentally friendly method of producing some of the most important chemicals used in manufacturing.

Harker School Wins 2017 SLAC Regional Science Bowl Competition

After losing its first match of the day to the defending champions, The Harker School's team won 10 consecutive rounds to claim victory in the annual SLAC Regional DOE Science Bowl on Saturday, Feb. 11.

Francis Alexander Named Deputy Director of Brookhaven Lab's Computational Science Initiative

Alexander brings extensive management and leadership experience in computational science research to the position.

Kalinin, Paranthaman Elected Materials Research Society Fellows

Two researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Sergei Kalinin and Mariappan Parans Paranthaman, have been elected fellows of the Materials Research Society.

Two PNNL Researchers Elected to Membership in the National Academy of Engineering

Two scientists at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory will become members of the prestigious National Academy of Engineering.


High-Energy Electrons Probe Ultrafast Atomic Motion

A new technique synchronized high-energy electrons with an ultrafast laser pulse to probe how vibrational states of atoms change in time.

Rare Earth Recycling

A new energy-efficient separation of rare earth elements could provide a new domestic source of critical materials.

Modeling the "Flicker" of Gluons in Subatomic Smashups

A new model identifies a high degree of fluctuations in the glue-like particles that bind quarks within protons as essential to explaining proton structure.

Rare Nickel Atom Has "Doubly Magic" Structure

Supercomputing calculations confirm that rare nickel-78 has unusual structure, offering insights into supernovas.

Microbial Activity in the Subsurface Contributes to Greenhouse Gas Fluxes

Natural carbon dioxide production from deep subsurface soils contributes significantly to emissions, even in a semiarid floodplain.

Stretching a Metal Into an Insulator

Straining a thin film controllably allows tuning of the materials' magnetic, electronic, and catalytic properties, essential for new energy and electronic devices.

How Moisture Affects the Way Soil Microbes Breathe

Study models soil-pore features that hold or release carbon dioxide.

ARM Data Is for the Birds

Scientists use LIDAR and radar data to study bird migration patterns, thanks to the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility.

The Future of Coastal Flooding

Better storm surge prediction capabilities could help reduce the impacts of extreme weather events, such as hurricanes.

Estimating Global Energy Use for Water-Related Processes

Scientists find that water-related energy consumption is increasing across the globe, with pronounced differences across regions and sectors.


Friday March 24, 2017, 10:40 AM

Great Neck South High School Wins Regional Science Bowl at Brookhaven Lab

Brookhaven National Laboratory

Wednesday February 15, 2017, 04:05 PM

Middle Schoolers Test Their Knowledge at Science Bowl Competition

Argonne National Laboratory

Friday January 27, 2017, 04:00 PM

Haslam Visits ORNL to Highlight State's Role in Discovering Tennessine

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

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Internship Program Helps Foster Development of Future Nuclear Scientists

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More Than 12,000 Explore Jefferson Lab During April 30 Open House

Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility

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Giving Back to National Science Bowl

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NMSU Undergrad Tackles 3D Particle Scattering Animations After Receiving JSA Research Assistantship

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Shannon Greco: A Self-Described "STEM Education Zealot"

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Rare Earths for Life: An 85th Birthday Visit with Mr. Rare Earth

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Meet Robert Palomino: 'Give Everything a Shot!'

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Tuesday April 22, 2014, 11:30 AM

University of Utah Makes Solar Accessible

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Student Innovator at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Seeks Brighter, Smarter, and More Efficient LEDs

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Texas Tech Energy Commerce Students, Community Light up Tent City

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Don't Get 'Frosted' Over Heating Your Home This Winter

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New Research Center To Tackle Critical Challenges Related to Aircraft Design, Wind Energy, Smart Buildings

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First Polymer Solar-Thermal Device Heats Home, Saves Money

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Like Superman, American University Will Get Its Energy from the Sun

American University

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ARRA Grant to Help Fund Seminary Building Green Roof

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UC San Diego Installing 2.8 Megawatt Fuel Cell to Anchor Energy Innovation Park

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Monday November 01, 2010, 12:50 PM

Rensselaer Smart Lighting Engineering Research Center Announces First Deployment of New Technology on Campus

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Friday September 10, 2010, 12:40 PM

Ithaca College Will Host Regional Clean Energy Summit

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Texas Governor Announces $8.4 Million Award to Create Renewable Energy Institute

Texas Tech University

Friday May 07, 2010, 04:20 PM

Creighton University to Offer New Alternative Energy Program

Creighton University

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Students Using Solar Power To Create Sustainable Solutions for Haiti, Peru

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Wednesday March 03, 2010, 07:00 PM

Helping Hydrogen: Student Inventor Tackles Challenge of Hydrogen Storage

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Turning Exercise into Electricity

Furman University

Thursday November 12, 2009, 12:45 PM

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Wednesday May 17, 2006, 06:45 PM

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Six Things You Might Not Know About Hydrogen

Article ID: 662443

Released: 2016-10-07 16:05:21

Source Newsroom: Argonne National Laboratory

  • Credit: science photo/Shutterstock

    Hydrogen fuel cells, like the one shown above, could provide many advantages and pathways for cleaner energy use.

October 8th is National Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Day. To celebrate, here are a few things you might not know about hydrogen and fuel cells.

Why is National Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Day celebrated on October 8th?

The day is celebrated on October 8 (10/08) because the atomic weight of hydrogen is 1.008 atomic mass units.

Why should I care about hydrogen? What is it good for?

Hydrogen is an important chemical for many industrial processes, most notably in the production of ammonia, which is used to make the fertilizer used to grow food, and in petroleum refining, where hydrogen is used to produce gasoline. Other uses include metal refining and the semiconductor industry, where it is used to make computer chips in phones and tablets.

Hydrogen can also be used as a fuel to power cars and heat buildings. The most important benefit of using hydrogen as a fuel is that when you burn it, the byproduct is just water. Hydrogen can also be used as a way to store energy, and this use has the potential to have a large impact on our future. Hydrogen can help reduce greenhouse gas emissions, integrate renewable energy into the grid and reduce the use of petroleum and other fossil fuels.

What is a fuel cell and how does it work?

A fuel cell is a device, similar to a battery, that converts the energy stored in chemical bonds to electrical energy. Fuel cells are more efficient than traditional combustion methods to convert fuel into electrical energy.Unlike a battery, a fuel cell isn't recharged, but is rather supplied with a flow of fuel (like hydrogen) that it reacts with an oxidant (like air or pure oxygen), which is then converted to electrical energy.

It's cleaner, too. When hydrogen is the fuel, the only byproduct is water — unlike our common combustion engines, which can create harmful byproducts like nitrogen oxides.

What are fuel cells used for?

Fuel cells can be used almost anywhere that there is a need for electrical power. They are more efficient than combustion engines and have higher reliability and lower emissions. In cars, fuel cells can provide faster refueling and longer ranges than current generations of batteries.

Over 60,000 fuel cells were shipped worldwide in 2015. Fuel cells are being used to provide backup power to telecommunications centers and cell phone towers, where their higher reliability and lower maintenance more than makes up for the higher initial equipment cost.

Hydrogen fuel cells can also replace natural gas in combined heat and power plants, which are used to generate usable heat and power simultaneously as decentralized generation. Fuel cell systems can convert up to 90 percent of the energy in the fuel (natural gas or hydrogen) into electrical power and useful heat. There are currently thousands of small units providing electrical power and hot water to homes in Japan, as well as in hospitals, hotels and at companies with a large demand for hot water or steam. Fuel cells are also being used at electric utilities to provide clean, reliable power to the grid.

In transportation, fuel cells offer the potential for efficient electric vehicles with the same range and refueling times customers have become accustomed to, while limiting the tailpipe emissions to only water. They are already being used in bicycles, cars, buses, trucks and even trains and planes. In California, there are now over 700 hydrogen fuel cell cars on the road and over 20 retail hydrogen fueling stations, with another 20 in development. Fuel cell cars can travel long distances before needing to be refueled (250-350 miles), and can be refueled in approximately the same time it takes to refuel your current gasoline-powered vehicle (three to five minutes).

What's holding fuel cells back, and what's being done to get more fuel cells out there?

While hydrogen and fuel cells are competitive in some applications, and some fuel cell vehicles are on the road, costs are still too high to be widely accepted in the market. Fuel cells have to get cheaper, while still achieving the durability and performance that people are accustomed to. Researchers have identified several key areas for cost reduction, including hydrogen storage and delivery and fuel cell materials costs.

Current commercial fuel cells use platinum, a rare and expensive metal, as the catalyst. Researchers are working on new catalysts that use less of this expensive metal, or that don't need platinum at all.

Lastly, for the adoption of fuel cell-powered cars, the number of hydrogen refueling stations must increase and they must be distributed across the country.

What research is Argonne doing on hydrogen and fuel cells?

Four different divisions at the lab conduct research in hydrogen and fuel cells, ranging from studies of the environmental impacts of fuel cell vehicles to developing new catalysts. Argonne is a partner in two new U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) consortia aimed at reducing cost and improving the performance and durability of fuel cells to extend their adoption in the marketplace. Argonne researchers lead efforts in modeling and validation and in studies of fuel cell electrode layers for DOE's Fuel Cell Consortium for Performance and Durability. These studies focus on determining the relationships between structure, composition and performance in the electrode layer of fuel cells to optimize the performance and durability of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells, the most commonly used commercial fuel cell.

Argonne and Los Alamos National Laboratory co-lead a second DOE fuel-cell-focused consortium, ElectroCat, that is accelerating the development of fuel cell catalysts that do not use expensive platinum-group metals. ElectroCat focuses on generating, analyzing, and evaluating catalyst candidates in a high-throughput laboratory.

Argonne National Laboratory seeks solutions to pressing national problems in science and technology. The nation's first national laboratory, Argonne conducts leading-edge basic and applied scientific research in virtually every scientific discipline. Argonne researchers work closely with researchers from hundreds of companies, universities, and federal, state and municipal agencies to help them solve their specific problems, advance America's scientific leadership and prepare the nation for a better future. With employees from more than 60 nations, Argonne is managed by UChicago Argonne, LLC for the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science.

The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science is the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States and is working to address some of the most pressing challenges of our time. For more information, visit the Office of Science website.