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Top Stories 4 Sept 2015

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EMBARGOED

A reporter's PressPass is required to access this story until the embargo expires on 8-Sep-2015 11:00 AM EDT

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New Strategy to Lower Blood Sugar May Help in Diabetes Treatment​

Working in mice, researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis showed they could reduce glucose production in the liver and lower blood sugar levels. They did so by shutting down a liver protein involved in making glucose, an approach that may help treat type 2 diabetes.

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Genetic Factors Drive Roles of Gut Bacteria in Diabetes and Obesity

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Researchers at Joslin Diabetes Center found that one strain of mice which were genetically prone to become obese became resistant to excess weight gain after their populations of gut microbiota were transformed simply by an sharing an environment with other mice.

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Diabetes and Brain Tangles May Be Linked Independently of Alzheimer’s Disease

Diabetes may be linked to the buildup of tangles or tau in the brain, separate from Alzheimer’s disease, according to a new study published in the September 2, 2015, online version of Neurology®, the medical journal of the American Academy of Neurology.

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International Experts Talk Cancer, Sickle Cell, Diabetic Nephropathy Therapies at Endothelin Meeting in Savannah

Endothelin (ET) plays a role in many functions throughout the body, including blood vessel constriction and blood pressure regulation, and insights gained through the study of ET have great therapeutic potential for health and disease. As ET experts convene for the 14th International Conference on Endothelin: Physiology, Pathophysiology and Therapeutics, the translational aspect of ET research will take center stage during the “Endothelin Therapeutics—Where Are We?” symposium.

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One Protein, Many Fascinating Roles

Endothelin is a peptide produced by cells in the blood vessels and has powerful vessel-constricting effects. Although mainly associated with its role in blood pressure control and cardiovascular diseases, it continues to appear in other physiological functions and diseases. This symposium will discuss its roles in diabetes, cognitive decline, sickle cell disease and skin pigmentation.

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Story Tips From the Department of Energy’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory September 2015

ORNL lamp simulates sun in tests for NASA; ORNL model examines diabetes progression; Hybrid lubricant holds great promise for engine efficiency; ORNL, partners score success with wireless charging demo; New software helps in design of quantum computers, batteries

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Medication Improves Measure of Kidney Disease in Patients with Diabetes

Among patients with diabetes and kidney disease, most receiving an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or an angiotensin receptor blocker, the addition of the medication finerenone compared with placebo resulted in improvement in albuminuria (the presence of excessive protein [chiefly albumin] in the urine), according to a study in the September 1 issue of JAMA.

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Diabetic Retinopathy Screening for Children with Type 1 Diabetes Should Start at Later Stage, New Study Says

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A new study has found that the occurrence of advanced forms of a diabetic eye disease remains low among children living with diabetes, regardless of how long they have had the disease or their ability to keep blood sugar levels controlled. Researchers are therefore recommending that most children with type 1 diabetes delay annual diabetic retinopathy screenings until age 15, or 5 years after their diabetes diagnosis, whichever occurs later. Their findings were published online today in Ophthalmology, the journal of the American Academy of Ophthalmology

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In Diabetic Eye Disease, Peripheral Lesions in the Retina Point to Higher Risks of Progression

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Investigators at the Joslin Diabetes Center now have shown that eyes with diabetic retinal lesions predominantly in peripheral areas of the retina that are seen in UWF images but not in traditional retinal photographs show surprisingly higher risks of progressing to advanced stages of vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy.

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Antibiotic Use Linked to Type 2 Diabetes Diagnosis

People who developed Type 2 diabetes tended to take more antibiotics in the years leading up to the diagnosis than people who did not have the condition, according to a new study published in the Endocrine Society’s Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism.

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Interrupting Sitting with Walking Breaks Improves Children’s Blood Sugar

Taking 3-minute breaks to walk in the middle of a TV marathon or other sedentary activity can improve children’s blood sugar compared to continuously sitting, according to a new National Institutes of Health (NIH) study published in the Endocrine Society’s Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism (JCEM).

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Proportion of Patients With Diabetes Undergoing CABG Spikes 5-Fold Over 4 Decades

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In the 40 years between 1970-2010, the proportion of patients with diabetes undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) escalated from 7% to 37%. The results of a large study from Cleveland Clinic just published in The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, the official publication of the American Association for Thoracic Surgery (AATS), documents the five-fold increase in the proportion of patients with diabetes undergoing this procedure between 1970 and 2010. These patients have more postoperative complications and decreased long-term survival than those without diabetes, and represent a growing challenge to reining in healthcare costs.

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High Iron Intake May Increase Appetite, Disease Risk

Here’s one more reason to cut down on the amount of red meat you eat. Using an animal model, researchers at Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center have found that dietary iron intake, equivalent to heavy red meat consumption, suppresses leptin, a hormone that regulates appetite.

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Contrary to Previous Studies, Diabetes Affects Diaphragm, Skeletal Muscle Cells Differently

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Previous studies have shown that diabetes adversely affects breathing and respiratory function. However, in the past, researchers have not differentiated diaphragm muscle cells and the muscle cells of limb skeletal muscle in their studies. Now, researchers from the University of Missouri have found that diaphragm muscle cells and other skeletal muscle cells behave differently—a finding that could influence future research on respiratory ailments associated with diabetes.

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Research Finds Link Between Diabetes and Bone Health

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Research conducted by a group including Liyun Wang, associate professor of mechanical engineering at the University of Delaware, found a link between diabetes and bone health. Clinical trials have revealed a startling elevation in fracture risk in diabetic patients, Wang said.

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Virginia Tech Researchers Find Biomarker for Pre-Diabetes

Researchers made the connection by analyzing blood samples taken from 40 participants enrolled in the diaBEAT-it program, a long-term study run by the Fralin Translational Obesity Research Center.

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Scientists Report Success Using Zebrafish Embryos to Identify Potential New Diabetes Drugs

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In experiments with 500,000 genetically engineered zebrafish embryos, Johns Hopkins scientists report they have developed a potentially better and more accurate way to screen for useful drugs, and they have used it to identify 24 drug candidates that increase the number of insulin-producing cells in the pancreas.

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Diabetes Drug Metformin’s Primary Effect Is in the Gut, Not the Bloodstream

Metformin was introduced as a type-2 diabetes treatment decades ago, but researchers still debate how the drug works. A new study shows that metformin’s primary effect occurs in the gut, not the bloodstream. And a new version of the drug could help more people control their diabetes.