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A reporter's PressPass is required to access this story until the embargo expires on 4-May-2016 10:30 AM EDT

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Indiana University Researchers Find Earth May Be Home to 1 Trillion Species

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Earth could contain nearly 1 trillion species, with only one-thousandth of 1 percent now identified, according to a study from biologists at Indiana University. The estimate, based on the intersection of large datasets and universal scaling laws, appears today in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

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Age-Related Macular Degeneration Before and After the Era of Anti-VEGF Drugs

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In a study of nearly 650 people with the eye disease age-related macular degeneration (AMD), half still had vision 20/40 or better, typically good enough to drive or to read standard print, after five years of treatment with anti-VEGF drugs that are injected into the eye. The authors of the study, funded by the National Eye Institute (NEI) at the National Institutes of Health, say those outcomes would have been unimaginable about 10 years ago, prior to the drugs' availability.

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Nonprofit Hospitals Earn Substantial Profits

Seven of the 10 most profitable hospitals in the United States in 2013 – each earning more than $163 million in profits from patient care services – were nonprofit hospitals, according to new research from the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health and Washington and Lee University.

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Researchers Identify Sharp Rise in Hospitalizations and Health Care Costs Associated with Opioid Abuse

Infection is a serious complication of intravenous drug abuse and a major cause of illness and death among intravenous drug users. As the national problem of opioid abuse, including of heroin, continues to grow, new research by clinicians at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (BIDMC) and the VA Boston Healthcare System, published today in the May issue of the journal Health Affairs, offers new insights into the significant impact of the trend on opioid-related hospitalizations, infectious complications and health care costs.

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Common Supplement Boosts Kidney Cancer Therapy

Researchers at UC Davis have shown that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a fatty acid commonly found in fish and fish oil supplements, reduces renal cell carcinoma invasiveness, growth rate, and blood vessel growth when combined with the anti-cancer therapy regorafenib. The study was published in the May issue of the journal Molecular Cancer Therapeutics.

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Targeted Hepatitis B Virus Screening Effective in Addressing Infection, Liver Disease Risk

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A community-based hepatitis B virus screening effort led by UC Davis researchers found that targeted outreach to Asian American populations can identify groups at high risk for infection and direct them to appropriate follow-up care to help prevent the onset of liver diseases, including cancer.

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A reporter's PressPass is required to access this story until the embargo expires on 5-May-2016 12:00 PM EDT

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Penn Study Underscores Need for Health Interventions for Single Parent Households in Urban Subsidized Housing Programs

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A study led by the University of Pennsylvania, School of Nursing (Penn Nursing) found that single parents who participate in a housing support program in an urban setting with high levels of community violence had significant symptoms of stress and depression.

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Quieting Cells' Low-Oxygen Alarm Stops Flare-Ups in Rare Bone Disorder

The cellular response to the lack of oxygen fans the flames of flare-ups in a rare bone disorder. In fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP), a mutation triggers bone growth in muscles, which limits motion, breathing, and swallowing, among a host of progressive symptoms. The study identifies HIF-1α as a therapeutic target for stopping the extra bone growth in FOP and other disorders.

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Neuroscientists Find Evidence for ‘Visual Stereotyping’

The stereotypes we hold can influence our brain’s visual system, prompting us to see others’ faces in ways that conform to these stereotypes, neuroscientists at New York University have found.

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LJI Scientists Discover Molecular Mechanism for Generating Specific Antibody Responses to Pathogens

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LA JOLLA, CA—Follicular helper T cells (Tfh cells), a rare type of T cells, are indispensible for the maturation of antibody-producing B cells. They promote the proliferation of B cells that produce highly selective antibodies against invading pathogens while weeding out those that generate potentially harmful ones. In their latest study, researchers at La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology identified a key signal that drives the commitment of immature Tfh cells into fully functional Tfh cells and thus driving the step-by-step process that results in a precisely tailored and effective immune response.

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A Long-noncoding RNA Regulates Repair of DNA Breaks in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Cells

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Using a clinically guided genetic screening approach, researchers identified a non-coding RNA that is overexpressed in triple-negative breast cancer cells and regulated by the tumor suppressor p53 and the activated cell surface protein, EGFR. This molecule enhances the repair of DNA breaks by serving as a scaffold that links two other proteins in the repair machinery.

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Screening Method Uncovers Drugs That May Combat Deadly Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria

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In recent years, hospitals have reported dramatic increases in the number of cases of the highly contagious, difficult-to-treat, and often deadly antibiotic-resistant bacteria carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE). Now, investigators at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (BIDMC) have developed a promising method of identifying new antimicrobials that target these organisms. The research is published in April issue of the journal ASSAY and Drug Development Technologies.

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Nanoparticles Present Sustainable Way to Grow Food Crops

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Scientists are working diligently to prepare for the expected increase in global population — and therefore an increased need for food production— in the coming decades. A team of engineers at Washington University in St. Louis has found a sustainable way to boost the growth of a protein-rich bean by improving the way it absorbs much-needed nutrients.

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Potential Cause Identified for Prostate Cancer Treatment Resistance Among African-American Men

Improper functioning of the mitochondria may help account for the fact that african-american men with prostate cancer respond poorly to conventional chemotherapy

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Genetic Risk Factors of Disparate Diseases Share Similar Biological Underpinnings

The discovery of shared biological properties among independent variants of DNA sequences offers the opportunity to broaden understanding of the biological basis of disease and identify new therapeutic targets.

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IU Study Finds Infant Attention Span Suffers When Parents' Eyes Wander During Playtime

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Caregivers whose eyes wander during playtime -- due to distractions such as smartphones or other technology, for example -- may raise children with shorter attention spans, according to a new study in the journal Current Biology by psychologists at Indiana University.

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Researchers Discover Potential Treatment for Sepsis and Other Uncontrollable Responses to Infection

Researchers at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai say that tiny doses of a cancer drug may stop the raging, uncontrollable immune response to infection that leads to sepsis and kills up to 500,000 people a year in the U.S.