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  • 2017-01-11 08:05:20
  • Article ID: 667510

Brookhaven National Laboratory's Top-10 Science Successes of 2016

Brookhaven National Laboratory’s Top-10 Science Successes of 2016

UPTON, NY—From advances in accelerators and experiments exploring the building blocks of matter and making medical isotopes to new revelations about superconductors, nanomaterials, and biofuels, 2016 was a year of accomplishment at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Brookhaven National Laboratory. Here are our Top-10 highlights.

Scientists Model the "Flicker" of Gluons in Subatomic Smashups

Scientists exploring the dynamic behavior of particles emerging from subatomic smashups at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), a particle collider used for nuclear physics experiments at Brookhaven Lab, are increasingly interested in the role of gluons. These glue-like particles ordinarily bind quarks within protons and neutrons, and appear to play an outsized role in establishing key particle properties. A model developed in 2016 by nuclear theorists at Brookhaven reveals that a high degree of gluon fluctuation—a kind of flickering rearrangement in the distribution of gluon density within individual protons—could help explain some of the remarkable results at RHIC and also in nuclear physics experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in Europe. The model describes how the structure of a seemingly simple proton can fluctuate as gluons continuously split and recombine, essentially flickering in and out of existence like the light of fireflies blinking on and off in the nighttime sky. Understanding this behavior is essential to interpreting what happens when protons strike larger particles such as gold or lead ions in particle collisions at RHIC and the LHC.

Beam-Beam Compensation Scheme Doubles Proton-Proton Collision Rates at RHIC

Accelerator physicists at Brookhaven National Laboratory have successfully implemented an innovative scheme for increasing proton collision rates at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), giving scientists more data to sift through to answer important nuclear physics questions, including the search for the source of proton spin.  RHIC is the world's only polarized proton collider, capable of sending beams of protons around its 2.4-mile-circumference racetrack with their internal magnetic axes (also known as spins) aligned in a chosen direction. Colliding beams of such "spin polarized" protons and manipulating the spin directions gives scientists a way to explore how their internal building blocks, quarks and gluons, contribute to this intrinsic particle property. But getting protons to collide is an ongoing challenge because, as one beam of these positively charged particles passes through the other, the particles' like charges make them want to move away from one another. Brookhaven accelerator physicists use a beam of oppositely charged particles, electrons, to compensate for the head-on beam-beam effects. As the protons pass through the negatively charged electron beam, they experience a kick in the opposite direction from the repulsive force created by their like-sign positive charges. The kick from this “electron lensing” nudges the protons back toward the center of the beam, so far doubling the peak and average “luminosity” (measures related to collision rates) at RHIC.

Lab Boosts Production of Radioisotopes for Diagnostics and Therapeutics

Upgrades to the Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer (BLIP), the Lab’s radioisotope production and research facility, have increased the yield of key medical isotopes used to diagnose and treat diseases. Many of these isotopes can only be produced by nuclear reactions that rely on high-energy particle accelerators like those that feed particle beams to fundamental nuclear physics experiments at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), part of Brookhaven’s flagship collider-accelerator complex. The upgrades at BLIP increased the intensity of the particle beams used to trigger isotope-producing reactions in target materials, and also introduced a novel system for scanning the beam across the targets to maximize their use. Since early 2016, these improvements have contributed to increased production of strontium-82 (Sr-82), an isotope used for cardiac imaging, and to research and development on actinium-225 (Ac-225), an isotope that may be a promising treatment for many forms of cancer, including leukemia and melanoma.  

catalyst for converting methane, the main component of abundant natural gas, directly to methanol at fairly low temperatures. Refining this catalyst could lead to a major commercial breakthrough—an inexpensive way to convert methane into methanol and other fuels or feedstocks for the synthesis of commodity goods such as plastics, paints, and textiles. The catalyst is made of inexpensive cerium dioxide (ceria) particles on a copper-oxide surface, which react with methane to free reactive hydrocarbon intermediates. Water provides hydroxide (OH) groups to react with the intermediates, producing methanol at high yield and low temperature. This reaction beats current two-step processes, where the first step is energy-intensive and expensive, as well as other attempts at one-step reactions where higher temperatures convert most of the useful hydrocarbon building blocks into carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide rather than methanol.

DNA Shaping Up to be Ideal Framework for Rationally Designed Nanostructures

In a series of papers, Brookhaven scientists working at the Lab’s Center for Functional Nanomaterials (CFN) used DNA as a programmable nanoscale building material, driving particles measuring just billionths of a meter to self-assemble into a wide variety of three-dimensional lattice structures. The scaffold-like frames made of DNA can even form interconnecting modules, or hold nanoparticles inside with DNA arms as programmable cages. The scientists verified the frame structures and nanoparticle arrangements using cryo-electron microscopy (a type of microscopy conducted at very low temperatures) at the CFN and Brookhaven's Biology Department, and x-ray scattering at the National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II). In each case, the external and internal binding properties and shapes of the precisely designed DNA frames control the structure of the resulting assemblies. This gives the scientists a way to engineer different lattices and architectures without having to manipulate the individual particles. The method opens up opportunities for rationally designing nanomaterials with optical, electric, and/or magnetic properties that can be enhanced or optimized by precisely organizing functional components. Some examples include targeted light-absorbing materials that harness solar energy, or magnetic materials that increase information-storage capacity.

why certain copper-oxide (cuprate) materials can conduct electricity without resistance at temperatures well above those required by conventional superconductors. After growing and analyzing thousands of precisely engineered samples of a cuprate known as LSCO (containing lanthanum, strontium, copper, and oxygen), they determined that LSCO’s "critical" superconducting temperature is controlled by the density of electron pairs—the number of electron pairs per unit area—instead of the strength of the electron pairing interaction, challenging a standard theory. If the team is correct, then it seems that small, local pairs of electrons essentially form a "superfluid" that flows without resistance. Previous experiments have established that the size of electron pairs is much smaller in cuprates than in conventional superconductors, whose pairs are so large that they overlap. Understanding what interaction makes the electron pairs so small in cuprates is the next step in the quest to solve the mystery of high-temperature superconductivity. Cracking this mystery may pave the way for engineering materials that become superconducting at room temperature—a capability that could transform the way energy is produced, transmitted, and used. 

Scientists Find Static "Stripes" of Electrical Charge in Copper-Oxide Superconductor

Brookhaven scientists discovered another clue to understanding the electronic ordering in copper-oxide superconductors. Using x-rays at Brookhaven’s National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II), they found evidence that static “charge stripes” (fixed arrangements of charges) coexist with the material’s ability to conduct electricity without resistance. Previously, the exact nature of these stripes—specifically, whether they fluctuate over time and whether they work together with or against the electrons that pair up and flow without energy loss—has remained a mystery. The new evidence for the coexistence of superconductivity with static (as opposed to fluctuating) charge stripes suggests that this static ordering of electrical charges may cooperate rather than compete with superconductivity. If this is the case, then the electrons that periodically bunch together to form the static charge stripes may be separated in space from the free-moving electron pairs required for superconductivity. Understanding the detailed physics of how these compounds work should point the way toward a recipe for how to raise the superconducting temperature.

Computational Tools Help Unlock Nanostructures, Secrets of the Universe, and Untapped Computing Resources

Computational tools play a role in every area of science at Brookhaven. Two standouts of 2016 include sorting out structures at the nanoscale and a new, efficient way to sift through petabytes of data generated at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). In the first example, scientists used advanced data analytics to make sense of “fuzzy” data generated by x-rays scattering off clusters of gold nanoparticles. The analysis revealed two unique atomic arrangements of the gold particles—somewhat like the differing arrangements of carbon atoms that result in diamond and graphite. The discovery gives engineers a new material to explore, along with the possibility of finding other “polymorphic” nanomaterials with potentially divergent functions. The second example was a demonstration of a “workload management system” that breaks up complex data analysis jobs and simulations for the LHC's ATLAS and ALICE experiments and "feeds" them into untapped pockets of available supercomputing time—similar to the way tiny pebbles can fill empty spaces between larger rocks in a jar. Mobilizing these previously unusable supercomputing capabilities, valued at millions of dollars per year, could quickly and effectively enable cutting-edge science in many data-intensive fields.

Study Shows Trees with Altered Lignin are Better for Biofuels

Scientists at Brookhaven have made a major advance that could lead to increased production of biofuels and other sustainable plant-based products. They engineered a novel enzyme involved in the synthesis of lignin—a natural component of the cellular scaffolding that enables plants to grow to great heights but simultaneously makes them hard to break down. Lignin forms a barrier of sorts around other plant cell-wall polymers, making it difficult for digestive enzymes to release their carbon-rich building blocks—the simple sugars needed to create biofuels like ethanol. Past approaches to limit lignin have weakened plants, reduced biomass, or both. The new enzyme changes lignin in a way that increases access to the biofuel building blocks without inhibiting plant growth. The engineered enzyme resulted in healthy aspen trees whose woody biomass released 62 percent more simple sugars than native plants, and an almost 50 percent increase in ethanol yield.

Chiral Magnetic Effect Generates Quantum Current

Scientists at Brookhaven Lab and Stony Brook University have discovered a new way to generate very low-resistance electric current in a new class of materials. The discovery, made in part using x-ray beams at Brookhaven’s National Synchrotron Light Source, points to a range of potential applications in energy, quantum computing, and medical imaging, and possibly even a new mechanism for inducing superconductivity—the ability of some materials to carry current with no energy loss. The materials scientists were surprised when they first measured the significant drop in electrical resistance and the accompanying dramatic increase in conductivity when the material, zirconium pentatelluride, was placed in parallel electric and magnetic fields. But a nuclear theorist who had explored similar behavior of subatomic particles in the magnetic fields created in collisions at Brookhaven's Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) suggested there could be a link. In both cases, the dramatic separation of charges could be triggered by a chiral imbalance—the separation of right- and left-"handed" particles (a property determined by whether a particle's spin is aligned with or against its direction of motion). When the scientists compared their measurements with mathematical predictions of how powerful the increase in conductivity should be with increasing magnetic field strength, they found definitive evidence of this long-predicted chiral magnetic effect—the first such evidence in a materials science laboratory.

This research was funded by the DOE Office of Science. NSLS/NSLS-II, CFN, and RHIC are DOE Office of Science User Facilities.

Brookhaven National Laboratory is supported by the Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy.  The Office of Science is the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States, and is working to address some of the most pressing challenges of our time.  For more information, please visit science.energy.gov.

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Ames Lab Scientists' Surprising Discovery: Making Ferromagnets Stronger by Adding Non-Magnetic Element

Researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory discovered that they could functionalize magnetic materials through a thoroughly unlikely method, by adding amounts of the virtually non-magnetic element scandium to a gadolinium-germanium alloy. It was so unlikely they called it a "counterintuitive experimental finding" in their published work on the research.

Cut U.S. Commercial Building Energy Use 29% with Widespread Controls

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How a Single Chemical Bond Balances Cells Between Life and Death

With SLAC's X-ray laser and synchrotron, scientists measured exactly how much energy goes into keeping a crucial chemical bond from triggering a cell's death spiral.

New Efficient, Low-Temperature Catalyst for Converting Water and CO to Hydrogen Gas and CO2

Scientists have developed a new low-temperature catalyst for producing high-purity hydrogen gas while simultaneously using up carbon monoxide (CO). The discovery could improve the performance of fuel cells that run on hydrogen fuel but can be poisoned by CO.

Study Sheds Light on How Bacterial Organelles Assemble

Scientists at Berkeley Lab and Michigan State University are providing the clearest view yet of an intact bacterial microcompartment, revealing at atomic-level resolution the structure and assembly of the organelle's protein shell. This work can help provide important information for research in bioenergy, pathogenesis, and biotechnology.

A Single Electron's Tiny Leap Sets Off 'Molecular Sunscreen' Response

In experiments at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, scientists were able to see the first step of a process that protects a DNA building block called thymine from sun damage: When it's hit with ultraviolet light, a single electron jumps into a slightly higher orbit around the nucleus of a single oxygen atom.

Researchers Find New Mechanism for Genome Regulation

The same mechanisms that separate mixtures of oil and water may also help the organization of an unusual part of our DNA called heterochromatin, according to a new study by Berkeley Lab researchers. They found that liquid-liquid phase separation helps heterochromatin organize large parts of the genome into specific regions of the nucleus. The work addresses a long-standing question about how DNA functions are organized in space and time, including how genes are silenced or expressed.

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Grasses: The Secrets Behind Their Success

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SLAC Experiment is First to Decipher Atomic Structure of an Intact Virus with an X-ray Laser

An international team of scientists has for the first time used an X-ray free-electron laser to unravel the structure of an intact virus particle on the atomic level. The method dramatically reduces the amount of virus material required, while also allowing the investigations to be carried out several times faster than before. This opens up entirely new research opportunities.


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Chicago Quantum Exchange to Create Technologically Transformative Ecosystem

The University of Chicago is collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy's Argonne National Laboratory and Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory to launch an intellectual hub for advancing academic, industrial and governmental efforts in the science and engineering of quantum information.

Department of Energy Awards Six Research Contracts Totaling $258 Million to Accelerate U.S. Supercomputing Technology

Today U.S. Secretary of Energy Rick Perry announced that six leading U.S. technology companies will receive funding from the Department of Energy's Exascale Computing Project (ECP) as part of its new PathForward program, accelerating the research necessary to deploy the nation's first exascale supercomputers.

Cynthia Jenks Named Director of Argonne's Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division

Argonne has named Cynthia Jenks the next director of the laboratory's Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division. Jenks currently serves as the assistant director for scientific planning and the director of the Chemical and Biological Sciences Division at Ames Laboratory.

Argonne-Developed Technology for Producing Graphene Wins TechConnect National Innovation Award

A method that significantly cuts the time and cost needed to grow graphene has won a 2017 TechConnect National Innovation Award. This is the second year in a row that a team at Argonne's Center for Nanoscale Materials has received this award.

Honeywell UOP and Argonne Seek Research Collaborations in Catalysis Under Technologist in Residence Program

Researchers at Argonne are collaborating with Honeywell UOP scientists to explore innovative energy and chemicals production.

Follow the Fantastic Voyage of the ICARUS Neutrino Detector

The ICARUS neutrino detector, born at Gran Sasso National Lab in Italy and refurbished at CERN, will make its way across the sea to Fermilab this summer. Follow along using an interactive map online.

JSA Awards Graduate Fellowships for Research at Jefferson Lab

Jefferson Sciences Associates announced today the award of eight JSA/Jefferson Lab graduate fellowships. The doctoral students will use the fellowships to support their advanced studies at their universities and conduct research at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab) - a U.S. Department of Energy nuclear physics laboratory managed and operated by JSA, a joint venture between SURA and PAE Applied Technologies.

Muon Magnet's Moment Has Arrived

On May 31, the 50-foot-wide superconducting electromagnet at the center of the Muon g-2 experiment saw its first beam of muon particles from Fermilab's accelerators, kicking off a three-year effort to measure just what happens to those particles when placed in a stunningly precise magnetic field. The answer could rewrite scientists' picture of the universe and how it works.

Seven Small Businesses to Collaborate with Argonne to Solve Technical Challenges

Seven small businesses have been selected to collaborate with researchers at Argonne to address technical challenges as part of DOE's Small Business Vouchers Program.

JSA Names Charles Perdrisat and Charles Sinclair as Co-Recipients of its 2017 Outstanding Nuclear Physicist Prize

Jefferson Science Associates, LLC, announced today that Charles Perdrisat and Charles Sinclair are the recipients of the 2017 Outstanding Nuclear Physicist Prize. The 2017 JSA Outstanding Nuclear Physicist Award is jointly awarded to Charles Perdrisat for his pioneering implementation of the polarization transfer technique to determine proton elastic form factors, and to Charles Sinclair for his crucial development of polarized electron beam technology, which made such measurements, and many others, possible.


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Oxygen: The Jekyll and Hyde of Biofuels

Scientists are devising ways to protect plants, biofuels and, ultimately, the atmosphere itself from damage caused by an element that sustains life on earth.

The Rise of Giant Viruses

Research reveals that giant viruses acquire genes piecemeal from others, with implications for bioenergy production and environmental cleanup.

Grasses: The Secrets Behind Their Success

Researchers find a grass gene affecting how plants manage water and carbon dioxide that could be useful to growing biofuel crops on marginal land.

New Perspectives Into Arctic Cloud Phases

Teamwork provides insight into complicated cloud processes that are important to potential environmental changes in the Arctic.

Mountaintop Plants and Soils to Become Out of Sync

Plants and soil microbes may be altered by climate warming at different rates and in different ways, meaning vital nutrient patterns could be misaligned.

If a Tree Falls in the Amazon

For the first time, scientists pinpointed how often storms topple trees, helping to predict how changes in Amazonia affect the world.

Turning Waste into Fuels, Microbial Style

A newly discovered metabolic process linking different bacteria in a community could enhance bioenergy production.

Department of Energy Awards Six Research Contracts Totaling $258 Million to Accelerate U.S. Supercomputing Technology

Today U.S. Secretary of Energy Rick Perry announced that six leading U.S. technology companies will receive funding from the Department of Energy's Exascale Computing Project (ECP) as part of its new PathForward program, accelerating the research necessary to deploy the nation's first exascale supercomputers.

Electrifying Magnetism

Researchers create materials with controllable electrical and magnetic properties, even at room temperature.

One Step Closer to Practical Fast Charging Batteries

Novel electrode materials have designed pathways for electrons and ions during the charge/discharge cycle.


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