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Report Sheds New Insights on the Spin Dynamics of a Material Candidate for Low-Power Devices

In a report published in Nano LettersArgonne researchers reveal new insights into the properties of a magnetic insulator that is a candidate for low-power device applications; their insights form early stepping-stones towards developing high-speed, low-power electronics that use electron spin rather than charge to carry information.

Researchers Find Computer Code That Volkswagen Used to Cheat Emissions Tests

An international team of researchers has uncovered the mechanism that allowed Volkswagen to circumvent U.S. and European emission tests over at least six years before the Environmental Protection Agency put the company on notice in 2015 for violating the Clean Air Act. During a year-long investigation, researchers found code that allowed a car's onboard computer to determine that the vehicle was undergoing an emissions test.

Physicists Discover That Lithium Oxide on Tokamak Walls Can Improve Plasma Performance

A team of physicists has found that a coating of lithium oxide on the inside of fusion machines known as tokamaks can absorb as much deuterium as pure lithium can.

Scientists Perform First Basic Physics Simulation of Spontaneous Transition of the Edge of Fusion Plasma to Crucial High-Confinement Mode

PPPL physicists have simulated the spontaneous transition of turbulence at the edge of a fusion plasma to the high-confinement mode that sustains fusion reactions. The research was achieved with the extreme-scale plasma turbulence code XGC developed at PPPL in collaboration with a nationwide team.

Green Fleet Technology

New research at Penn State addresses the impact delivery trucks have on the environment by providing green solutions that keep costs down without sacrificing efficiency.

Scientists Demonstrate New Real-Time Technique for Studying Ionic Liquids at Electrode Interfaces

This electron microscope-based imaging technique could help scientists optimize the performance of ionic liquids for batteries and other energy storage devices.

How Scientists Turned a Flag Into a Loudspeaker

A paper-thin, flexible device created at Michigan State University not only can generate energy from human motion, it can act as a loudspeaker and microphone as well, nanotechnology researchers report in the May 16 edition of Nature Communications.

Assembling Life's Molecular Motor

As part of a project dedicated to modeling how single-celled purple bacteria turn light into food, a team of computational scientists from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC) simulated a complete ATP synthase in all-atom detail. The work builds on the project's first phase--a 100-million atom photosynthetic organelle called a chromatophore--and gives scientists an unprecedented glimpse into a biological machine whose energy efficiency far surpasses that of any artificial system.

Engineering Researchers Apply Data Science to Better Predict Effect of Weather and Other Conditions on Solar Panels

In a new study, a team of researchers from Case Western Reserve University and Gebze Technical University (GTU) in Turkey used data science to determine and predict the effects of exposure to weather and other conditions on materials in solar panels.

More Natural Dust in the Air Improves Air Quality in Eastern China

Man-made pollution in eastern China's cities worsens when less dust blows in from the Gobi Desert, according to a new study. That's because dust plays an important role in determining the air temperatures and thereby promoting winds to blow away man-made pollution. Less dust means the air stagnates, with man-made pollution sticking around longer.


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Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Graduates Urged to Embrace Change at 211th Commencement

Describing the dizzying pace of technological innovation, former United States Secretary of Energy Ernest J. Moniz urged graduates to "anticipate career change, welcome it, and manage it to your and your society's benefit" at the 211th Commencement at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI) Saturday.

ORNL Welcomes Innovation Crossroads Entrepreneurial Research Fellows

Oak Ridge National Laboratory today welcomed the first cohort of innovators to join Innovation Crossroads, the Southeast region's first entrepreneurial research and development program based at a U.S. Department of Energy national laboratory.

Department of Energy Secretary Recognizes Argonne Scientists' Work to Fight Ebola, Cancer

Two groups of researchers at Argonne earned special awards from the office of the U.S. Secretary of Energy for addressing the global health challenges of Ebola and cancer.

Jefferson Science Associates, LLC Recognized for Leadership in Small Business Utilization

Jefferson Lab/Jefferson Science Associates has a long-standing commitment to doing business with and mentoring small businesses. That commitment and support received national recognition at the 16th Annual Dept. of Energy Small Business Forum and Expo held May 16-18, 2017 in Kansas City, Mo.

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute President's Commencement Colloquy to Address "Criticality, Incisiveness, Creativity"

To kick off the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Commencement weekend, the annual President's Commencement Colloquy will take place on Friday, May 19, beginning at 3:30 p.m. The discussion, titled "Criticality, Incisiveness, Creativity," will include the Honorable Ernest J. Moniz, former Secretary of Energy, and the Honorable Roger W. Ferguson Jr., President and CEO of TIAA, and will be moderated by Rensselaer President Shirley Ann Jackson.

ORNL, University of Tennessee Launch New Doctoral Program in Data Science

The Tennessee Higher Education Commission has approved a new doctoral program in data science and engineering as part of the Bredesen Center for Interdisciplinary Research and Graduate Education.

SurfTec Receives $1.2 Million Energy Award to Develop Novel Coating

The Department of Energy has awarded $1.2 million to SurfTec LLC, a company affiliated with the U of A Technology Development Foundation, to continue developing a nanoparticle-based coating to replace lead-based journal bearings in the next generation of electric machines.

Ames Laboratory Scientist Inducted Into National Inventors Hall of Fame

Iver Anderson, senior metallurgist at Ames Laboratory, has been inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame.

DOE HPC4Mfg Program Funds 13 New Projects to Improve U.S. Energy Technologies Through High Performance Computing

A U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) program designed to spur the use of high performance supercomputers to advance U.S. manufacturing is funding 13 new industry projects for a total of $3.9 million.

Penn State Wind Energy Club Breezes to Victory in Collegiate Wind Competition

The Penn State Wind Energy Club breezed through the field at the U.S. Department of Energy Collegiate Wind Competition 2017 Technical Challenge, held April 20-22 at the National Wind Technology Center near Boulder, Colorado--earning its third overall victory in four years at the Collegiate Wind Competition.


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Casting a Wide Net

Designed molecules will provide positive impacts in energy production by selectively removing unwanted ions from complex solutions.

New Software Tools Streamline DNA Sequence Design-and-Build Process

Enhanced software tools will accelerate gene discovery and characterization, vital for new forms of fuel production.

The Ultrafast Interplay Between Molecules and Materials

Computer calculations by the Center for Solar Fuels, an Energy Frontier Research Center, shed light on nebulous interactions in semiconductors relevant to dye-sensitized solar cells.

Supercapacitors: WOODn't That Be Nice

Researchers at Nanostructures for Electrical Energy Storage, an Energy Frontier Research Center, take advantage of nature-made materials and structure for energy storage research.

Groundwater Flow Is Key for Modeling the Global Water Cycle

Water table depth and groundwater flow are vital to understanding the amount of water that plants transmit to the atmosphere.

Finding the Correct Path

A new computational technique greatly simplifies the complex reaction networks common to catalysis and combustion fields.

Opening Efficient Routes to Everyday Plastics

A new material from the Inorganometallic Catalyst Design Center, an Energy Frontier Research Center, facilitates the production of key industrial supplies.

Fight to the Top: Silver and Gold Compete for the Surface of a Bimetallic Solid

It's the classic plot of a buddy movie. Two struggling bodies team up to drive the plot and do good together. That same idea, when it comes to metals, could help scientists solve a big problem: the amount of energy consumed by making chemicals.

Saving Energy Through Light Control

New materials, designed by researchers at the Center for Excitonics, an Energy Frontier Research Center, can reduce energy consumption with the flip of a switch.

Teaching Perovskites to Swim

Scientists at the ANSER Energy Frontier Research Center designed a two-component layer protects a sunlight-harvesting device from water and heat.


The Roadmap to Quark Soup

Article ID: 673490

Released: 2017-04-24 11:20:01

Source Newsroom: Department of Energy, Office of Science

  • Credit: Image courtesy of Brookhaven National Laboratory

    Scientists seeking to plot points on the nuclear phase diagram — a map of the different states of nuclear matter and transitions among them under different conditions of temperature and density — have new signposts (curved line) to look for as they search for evidence of a “critical point.” (LHC green oval = matter found by the Large Hadron Collider; RHIC = matter found by the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider.)

The Science

Did the primordial soup of fundamental particles that filled the early universe suddenly “freeze” to form the protons and neutrons that make up visible matter today? Scientists now have new signposts to look for as they map out that transition from primordial quark-gluon plasma to matter as we know it. The research identifies key patterns. These patterns would be proof of the existence of a “critical point” in the transition among different phases of nuclear matter. At the critical point, matter as we know it today and the particle soup of the early universe are virtually indistinguishable.

The Impact

A detailed knowledge of different phases of water — liquid, solid ice, and steam — teaches us about the force that binds a water molecule. Similarly, identifying various phases of nuclear matter and the “critical point” will provide insight into the strong force that binds nuclear matter. Scientists don’t yet know how this knowledge about the strong force might be applied. But as they point out, they didn’t know how the collective properties of electrons, considered just as exotic when discovered a century ago, would benefit society and industry.

Summary

By tracking particles that emerge from nuclear collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), a U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science user facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory in New York, physicists are seeking to understand nuclear phase transitions. They want to learn how ordinary nuclei “melt” to create a quark-gluon plasma. The plasma is the stuff that existed in the very early universe before atoms or even protons and neutrons. By understanding how nuclei melt, they can learn how the quarks and gluons that ultimately make up these nuclear particles “freeze out” as they did at the dawn of time. That freezing formed the visible matter of today’s world. They believe that two different types of phase changes can transform the hot quark-gluon plasma into ordinary protons and neutrons. Importantly, they suspect that the type of change depends on the collision energy, which determines the temperatures generated and how many nuclear particles get caught up in the collision. By systematically colliding nuclei at a wide range of energies, physicists in RHIC’s STAR collaboration are exploring the different types of phase changes across the nuclear phase diagram. They are particularly interested in searching for evidence of a “critical point,” where the quarks and gluons that make up protons and neutrons transition to a plasma very quickly — almost as if all the water in a pot turned to steam in a single instant. A new theoretical analysis has shown them exactly what to look for the closer they get to this critical point. Specifically, the analysis predicts patterns in how the properties of particles emitted from the collisions are correlated as the energy of the collisions changes. The theory is an advance because it takes into account the dynamic conditions of the expanding quark-gluon plasma, unlike the more static situation of a pot of boiling water. If the STAR collaboration looks at the data in a particular way and sees the predicted signposts, they can claim without any ambiguity that they have seen a critical point.

 

Funding

The Beam Energy Scan Theory Collaboration and research at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider are supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science. 

Publications

S. Mukherjee, R. Venugopalan, and Y. Yin, “Universal off-equilibrium scaling of critical cumulants in the QCD phase diagramExternal link.” Physical Review Letters 117, 222301 (2016). [DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.117.222301]