Newswise — TIME magazine has named Penn Nursing’s pioneering research on autism and low birthweight one of the “Top 10 New Findings in Parenting” of 2011. In October, Penn Nursing Professor Jennifer Pinto-Martin, PhD, MPH, and colleagues reported in Pediatrics that premature infants are five times more likely to have autism than children born at normal weight.
The children, some born as small as about a pound, were followed for 21 years, making this study one of the most remarkable of its kind. The infants were born between September 1984 through July 1987 in Middlesex, Monmouth, and Ocean counties in New Jersey at birthweights from 500 grams to 2000 grams or a maximum of about 4.4 pounds.
“As survival of the smallest and most immature babies improves, impaired survivors represent an increasing public health challenge,” wrote Dr. Pinto-Martin, who directs the Center for Autism and Developmental Disabilities Research and Epidemiology at Penn Nursing. “Emerging studies suggest that low birthweight may be a risk factor for autism spectrum disorders.”
Links between low birthweight and a range of motor and cognitive problems have been well-established for some time, but this is the first study to prove that these children are also at increased risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASD).
The researchers, including a team at The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, followed 862 children from birth to young adulthood finding that five percent of the children were diagnosed with autism, compared to one percent of the general population in what researchers called “the first study to have estimated the prevalence of ASD . . . using research-validated diagnostic instruments.” The $3 million study was funded by the National Institute of Mental Health.
In future studies, Penn researchers will investigate possible links between brain hemorrhage, a complication of premature birth, and autism by examining brain ultrasounds taken of these children as newborns.