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‘Prepped’ by Tumor Cells, Lymphatic Cells Encourage Breast Cancer Cells to Spread

Breast cancer cells can lay the groundwork for their own spread throughout the body by coaxing cells within lymphatic vessels to send out tumor-welcoming signals, according to a new report by Johns Hopkins scientists.

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Taxes and Subsidies Could Encourage Healthier Diet and Lower Healthcare Costs

In a Viewpoint published in the Journal of the American Medical Association, a team of Tufts University and Harvard University researchers call for the implementation of taxes and subsidies to improve dietary quality in the United States.

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Any Diet Works, if You Stick to It

Weight loss differences between popular diets are minimal and likely of little importance to those wanting to lose weight, the researchers say. However, diets with behavioural support and exercise enhance the weight loss.

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Researchers Examine Effectiveness of Blocking Nerve to Help With Weight Loss

Among patients with morbid obesity, blocking the vagus nerve, which plays a role with appetite and metabolism, did not meet pre-specified efficacy objectives compared to a control group, although the intervention did result in greater weight loss, according to a study in the September 3 issue of JAMA.

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Study Finds Change in Type of Procedure Most Commonly Used for Bariatric Surgery

In an analysis of the type of bariatric surgery procedures used in Michigan in recent years, sleeve gastrectomy (SG) surpassed Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) in 2012 as the most common procedure performed for patients seeking this type of surgery, and SG became the predominant bariatric surgery procedure for patients with type 2 diabetes, according to a study in the September 3 issue of JAMA.

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Increase Seen in Use of Double Mastectomy

Among women diagnosed with early-stage breast cancer in California, the percentage undergoing a double mastectomy increased substantially between 1998 and 2011, although this procedure was not associated with a lower risk of death than breast-conserving surgery plus radiation, according to a study in the September 3 issue of JAMA. The authors did find that surgery for the removal of one breast was associated with a higher risk of death than the other options examined in the study.

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Comparison of Named Diet Programs Finds Little Difference in Weight Loss Outcomes

In an analysis of data from nearly 50 trials including about 7,300 individuals, significant weight loss was observed with any low-carbohydrate or low-fat diet, with weight loss differences between diet programs small, findings that support the practice of recommending any diet that a patient will adhere to in order to lose weight, according to a study in the September 3 issue of JAMA.

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Sexual Risk Behaviors of Hispanic Youth Vary by Language, Place of Birth

A new study in the Journal of Adolescent Health finds that the sexual risk behaviors of young Hispanic people living in the U.S. vary considerably with their degree of acculturation.

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Professors Provide Most Updated Information on Aspirin in the Prevention of a First Heart Attack

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Professors from Florida Atlantic University and the University of Arizona have published an article emphasizing that the evidence in treatment indicates that all patients having a heart attack or who have survived a prior event should be given aspirin. In healthy individuals, however, they state that any decision to prescribe aspirin should be an individual clinical judgment by the healthcare provider that weighs the absolute benefit in reducing the risk of a first heart against the absolute risk of major bleeding.

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Enzyme Controlling Metastasis of Breast Cancer Identified

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Researchers at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine have identified an enzyme that controls the spread of breast cancer. The findings, reported in the current issue of PNAS, offer hope for the leading cause of breast cancer mortality worldwide.

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