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Medicine

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Northwestern University, Northwestern Medicine, Brain

Brain Stimulation Used Like a Scalpel to Improve Memory

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Northwestern Medicine scientists showed for the first time that non-invasive brain stimulation can be used like a scalpel, rather than like a hammer, to cause a specific improvement in precise memory.Precise memory, rather than general memory, is critical for knowing details such as the specific color, shape and location of a building you are looking for, rather than simply knowing the part of town it’s in.

Life

Social and Behavioral Sciences

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Brain Development, Language and music, Cognitive Abilities, Brain Skills, pitch perception, Tone Language

Mandarin Makes You More Musical?

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Mandarin makes you more musical – and at a much earlier age than previously thought. That’s the suggestion of a new study from the University of California San Diego. But hold on there, overachiever parents, don’t’ rush just yet to sign your kids up for Chinese lessons instead of piano.

Medicine

Science

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Reading Disabilities, Specific Language Impairment, Word Learning, Book reading, Reading impairment treatment

Reading Picture Books with Children Holds Promise for Treating a Common Language Disorder

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A clinical trial of interactive book reading finds that children with Specific Language Impairment need to hear a word 36 times to learn it vs. 12 times for typically-developing children. Treatment materials are freely available to speech-language pathologists.

Life

Social and Behavioral Sciences

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Learning, Memory, testing accuracy, Exams, Students, University Students, Eyewitness Testimony, study methods, Brain Activation, Baylor University, Canadian Institutes Of Health Research, University Of Toronto, Rotman Research Institute, Baycrest, Visual Cues, Aging, foreign films

Want to Ace an Exam? Tell a Friend What You Learned

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Students who are given information and tell someone about it immediately recall the details better and longer — a strategy which could be a plus come test time, says a Baylor University researcher.

Life

Social and Behavioral Sciences, Education

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Learning Sciences, Psychology, Education, Discourse processing, Text Analysis, Curriculum, Professional Development

UIC Learning Scientist Honored by International Research Society

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University of Illinois at Chicago learning scientist Susan Goldman has been selected to receive the Society for Text and Discourse's 2017 Distinguished Scientific Contribution Award.

Life

Education

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Learning and Development

Gifted Students Benefit From Ability Grouping

Schools should use both ability grouping and acceleration to help academically talented students, reports a new Northwestern University study that examined a century of research looking at the controversial subject.

Life

Social and Behavioral Sciences

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Civic Engagement, play, Executive Function, Child Development, NYU, NYU Steinhardt School of Culture, Education, and Human Development, NYU Steinhardt

Play and Cognitive Skills in Kindergarten Predict Extracurricular Activities in Middle School

Cognitive skills and experiences like classroom-based play in kindergarten lead to participation in extracurricular activities in 8th grade among children growing up in poverty, finds a new study led by NYU Steinhardt School of Culture, Education, and Human Development.

Medicine

Science

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While Not Necessarily Reality, Perception Can Cause Reality to Evolve

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In a perspective published January 6, 2017, in Science, Hamilton Farris, PhD, Associate Professor-Research at LSU Health New Orleans Neuroscience Center of Excellence, finds that the key insight of an important study is that perception can drive the evolution of observable traits.

Medicine

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Northwestern University, Language, preterm babies

Preterm Infants Fare Well in Early Language Development

Preterm babies perform as well as their full-term counterparts in a developmental task linking language and cognition, a new study from Northwestern University has found.The study, the first of its kind with preterm infants, tests the relative contributions of infants’ experience and maturational status. Northwestern researchers compared healthy preterm and full-term infants at the same maturational age, or age since conception.

Life

Social and Behavioral Sciences

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Crime, Adolescence, Volunteering

More Volunteering as Teens Leads to Less Criminal Activity as Adults

A new study from the University of Iowa found that teenagers who participated in volunteer activities on their own had 11 percent fewer illegal behaviors between the ages of 18 and 28 than teenagers who did not volunteer. They also had 31 percent fewer arrests and 39 percent fewer convictions.

Life

Social and Behavioral Sciences

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Parents’ Presence When TV Viewing with Child Affects Learning Ability

The study conducted in the Texas Tech University College of Media & Communication shows an increased physiological change in children when parents view programs with them as opposed to being in a separate room.

Medicine

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White Matter, White Matter Tracts, Cognition, Heritability, DTI, factor analysis

White Matter Structure in the Brain Predicts Cognitive Function at Ages 1 and 2

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A new study led by University of North Carolina School of Medicine researchers concluded that patterns of white matter microstructure present at birth and that develop after birth predict the cognitive function of children at ages 1 and 2.

Life

Social and Behavioral Sciences

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Multisensory Integration, Children, Olfaction, Odors, affective matching, Social Development, National Learning Laboratory, museum studies, Autism Spectrum Disorder

Via Eyes or Noses? How Young Children Use Sensory Cues to Guide Social Decisions

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New research from the Monell Center reveals that children begin using olfactory information to help guide their responses to emotionally-expressive faces at about age five. The findings advance understanding of how children integrate different types of sensory information to direct their social behavior.

Science

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Stress and Anxiety, Stress And Depression, Neural Activity, Social Stress, early life stress, Brain Connectivity, Social Behavior, Biomedical And Health Research, Veterinary and biomedical sciences, Biomedical Science and Translational Medicine, Biomedical Science, Biomedical Sciences

Early Life Social Stress Has Long-Term Impact on Brain Networks in Rats

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Investigators in veterinary and human medicine have uncovered long-term changes in the brains of adult female rats exposed to social stresses early in life, with the biggest impact on regions of the brain linked to social behavior, stress, emotion and depression. The findings will enable researchers to begin testing preventative measures and treatments for depression and anxiety.

Science

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When Horses Are in Trouble They Ask Humans for Help

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Research Fellow Monamie RINGHOFER and Associate Professor Shinya YAMAMOTO (Kobe University Graduate School of Intercultural Studies) have proved that when horses face unsolvable problems they use visual and tactile signals to get human attention and ask for help. The study also suggests that horses alter their communicative behavior based on humans' knowledge of the situation. These findings were published in the online version of Animal Cognition on November 24.

Life

Social and Behavioral Sciences

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Infants Show Apparent Awareness of Ethnic Differences

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Findings help advance understanding of social cognition and social development

Medicine

Science

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Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Psychotherapy, Cognitive Behavior Therapy

Type of Psychotherapy Matters in Treatment of Irritable Bowel Syndrome

A new study has found that the type of psychotherapy used to treat the gastrointestinal disorder irritable bowel syndrome makes a difference in improving patients' daily functioning.

Science

Channels:

Cognitive Computing, Watson, immersive environment, situations room, IBM Research, Rensselaer, Hui Su

At the Edge of a Cognitive Space

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The Cognitive and Immersive Systems Laboratory (CISL) has developed a prototype of its cognitive and immersive environment for collaborative problem-solving.

Science

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Yale Linguists Explore the Evolution of Color in New Study

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The naming of colors has long been a topic of interest in the study of human culture and cognition — revealing the link between perception, language, and the categorization of the natural world. A major question in the study of both anthropology and cognitive science is why the world’s languages show recurrent similarities in color naming. Linguists at Yale tracked the evolution of color terms across a large language tree in Australia in order to trace the history of these systems.

Medicine

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Northwestern University, Northwestern Medicine, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Brain

Rhythm of Breathing Affects Memory and Fear

Northwestern Medicine scientists have discovered for the first time that the rhythm of breathing creates electrical activity in the human brain that enhances emotional judgments and memory recall. These effects on behavior depend critically on whether you inhale or exhale and whether you breathe through the nose or mouth.







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