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Cognition and Learning

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Life

Social and Behavioral Sciences

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Children, Anger, Acoustics, Listening, Speech, emotional speech, emotional cues, emotional environment, Peter Moriarty, Michelle Vigeant, Pamela Cole , Pennsylvania State University, 172nd Meeting of the Acoustical Society of America, ASA

How Do Children Hear Anger?

Even if they don’t understand the words, infants react to the way their mother speaks and the emotions conveyed through speech. What exactly they react to and how has yet to be fully deciphered, but could have significant impact on a child’s development. Researchers in acoustics and psychology teamed up to better define and study this impact.

Science

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open office plans, Cognitive Performance, noise distractions, meaningless noise, odd-ball paradigm, Takahiro Tamesue, Yamaguchi University, 172nd Meeting of the Acoustical Society of America, ASA, Acoustics

Study Finds Hearing "Meaningful" Sounds Decreases Performance on Cognitive Tasks

Open office plans are becoming increasingly common in the workplace -- offering a way to optimize available space and encourage dialogue, interaction and collaboration among employees. However, a new study suggests that productive work-related conversations might actually decrease the performance of other employees within earshot -- more so than other random, meaningless noises.

Science

Life

Social and Behavioral Sciences

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Learning Makes Animals Intelligent

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Researchers at Stockholm University and Brooklyn College have combined knowledge from the fields of artificial intelligence, ethology and the psychology of learning to solve several problems concerning the behaviour and intelligence of animals.

Medicine

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Bidmc, Beth Israel Deaconess, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Parkinson Disease, Cognitive Deficits, Orthostatic Hypotension

Standing Up May Unmask Cognitive Deficits in Patients with Parkinson’s

This study shows that when patients with PD experience a drop in blood pressure upon standing up – a condition known as orthostatic hypotension (OH) – they exhibit significant cognitive deficits. These deficits reverse when the individual lies down and their blood pressure returns to normal. As a result, these findings are important as clinical providers might miss an important target for intervention when not considering OH as a contributor to cognitive impairment.

Science

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Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Visual Cortex, Brain Activity Imaging, Brain oscillations, oscillating blood flow, fMRI, Neural Activity, Neural Networks

Imaging Technique Can See You Think

NIBIB-funded researchers have used fast fMR Ito image rapidly fluctuating brain activity during human thought. fMRI measures changes in blood oxygenation, which were previously thought to be too slow to detect the subtle neuronal activity associated with higher order brain functions. The new discovery is a significant step towards realizing a central goal of neuroscience research: mapping the brain networks responsible for human cognitive functions such as perception, attention, and awareness.

Medicine

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Bulimia, Bulimia Nervosa, Group Therapy, Online Group Therapy, Cognitive-behavioral therapy

Online Group Therapy May Be Effective Treatment for Bulimia Nervosa

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Results from a new study show that online group therapy can be just as effective as face-to-face treatment, although the pace of recovery may be slower.

Medicine

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Toys For Kids

Beyond Play: Sociologist Explores How Toys Fuel Stereotypes

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Encouraging children to enjoy a wide variety of toys allows them to develop fully, says lecturer Elizabeth Sweet.

Life

Social and Behavioral Sciences

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Children, Learning, Brain, Spatial Reasoning, Psychology, stem, math

Young Children’s Spatial Talk Predicts Their Spatial Abilities

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In a study published this month in the journal Child Development, UW-Madison researcher Hilary Miller shows preschool age kids often skip location words and lean on other relevant information to describe important spatial details.

Science

Life

Social and Behavioral Sciences

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Stress, Learning, Memory, retrieval practice, Study Habits

Practice Testing Protects Memory Against Stress

Learning by taking practice tests, a strategy known as retrieval practice, can protect memory against the negative effects of stress, report scientists from Tufts University in a new study published in Science on Nov. 25.

Medicine

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University Of Haifa, Elham Taha, Prof. Kobi Rosenblum, Epilepsy

Connection Found Between Memory Mechanisms and Resistance to Epilepsy

A study led jointly by research student Elham Taha from the laboratory of Prof. Kobi Rosenblum at the University of Haifa, and Christopher Heise from the laboratory of Professor Carlo Sala at the University of Milan, in cooperation with other European researchers. In a surprising finding, the study showed that a genetic change in the protein eEF2K creates resistance to epileptic attacks, thereby creating the possibility of a new treatment for the disease

Medicine

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Duke Health, Duke University School of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Psychiatric Care, PTSD, Ptsd Therapy, Ptsd Treament, active duty, U.S. Military, STRONG STAR Consortium

Active-Duty Military Find PTSD Relief Through Individual Cognitive Therapy

Although both group and individual therapy can ease post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in active-duty military service members, individual therapy relieved PTSD symptoms better and quicker, according to a study led by a Duke University School of Medicine researcher. The randomized clinical trial is the largest to date to examine an evidence-based treatment for active-duty military service members, with 268 participants from the U.S. Army’s Fort Hood in Killeen, Texas. Findings will be published Nov. 23 in JAMA Psychiatry.

Science

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Consciousness, Neuroscience, neural correlates, AI, evolution of life, brain disorders and conscious mind, noninvasive brain stimulation, Brain Biology, Brain evolution, Chinese Medicine, eastern philosophy, quantum cognition, memristors

Call for Abstracts: The Science of Consciousness - 2017 Shanghai

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'The Science of Consciousness' (‘TSC’) is the world’s largest and longest-running interdisciplinary conference on all aspects of the nature of conscious awareness, feelings and existence. These include how the brain produces consciousness, how consciousness can causally affect brain processes, the best empirical theories, do we have free will, evolution of life and consciousness, the origins of moral and aesthetic values, how to improve mental, physical and cognitive function, and whether consciousness can persist after bodily death, e.g. through ‘uploading’ to machines, or via mental processes tied to the structure of reality. These and other relevant questions are approached through many disciplines in science, philosophy, business, the arts and contemplative practices.

Medicine

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Speech, Cognitive Development, Speech Patterns, speech development, Preschoolers, Self-regulation, Adhd Attention Deficit Disorder, Speech Monitoring , Speech repairs

Preschoolers Correct Speaking Mistakes Even When Talking to Themselves

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Private speech is a good thing for a child’s cognitive development; however, it may be important that children monitor and repair errors in their speech, even when talking to themselves. Louis Manfra, assistant professor in the College of Human Environmental Sciences at the University of Missouri, found that children do, in fact, monitor their speech for errors, even without a listener. Manfra says parents and caregivers might encourage preschool-aged children to monitor their private speech by demonstrating such behavior in their own aloud private speech.

Medicine

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Research Provides Insights on the Link Between Kidney Damage and Cognitive Impairment

• Kidney damage was linked with worse performance on tests of global cognitive function, executive function, memory, and attention. • Kidney damage may also be linked with structural abnormalities in the brain. • Research that uncovered these findings will be presented at ASN Kidney Week 2016 November 15–20 at McCormick Place in Chicago, IL.

Medicine

Life

Social and Behavioral Sciences

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How Does the Brain of People Who Do Not Like Music Work?

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A new study explains brain mechanisms associated to the lack of sensitivity to music.

Medicine

Science

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Men's Brains Are Found to Be More Greedy Than Women's

It has long been known to science that women find it easier than men to multitask and switch between tasks. But identifying exactly which areas of male and female brains respond differently and why has so far been unclear.

Science

Life

Social and Behavioral Sciences

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Brain, Neuroscience, Cognition, Facial Recognition, Gender Differences

Finally, a Type of Face That Men Recognize Better Than Women

A study using Barbies and Transformers finds that men are better at recognizing Transformer faces while women are better at recognizing Barbie faces, supporting the theory that experience plays an important role in facial recognition.

Medicine

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Study to Explore Detection of Learning Disabilities Through Physical Movement

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An Indiana University physicist and neuroscientist who studies how physical movement can be used to detect autism in children and adults has received support from the National Science Foundation. The $750,000 NSF grant to IU scientist Jorge V. José and collaborators will be used to apply analytical methods pioneered at IU and Rutgers University toward diagnosing, and possibly treating, a wider range of learning disabilities.

Science

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Evolution, genes, genetic repurposing, Cognition, Human Brain, mouse brain, mice, Humans, Species

Genetic Repurposing

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A gene that regulates bone growth and muscle metabolism in mammals may take on an additional role as a promoter of brain maturation, cognition and learning in human and nonhuman primates, according to a new study led by neurobiologists at Harvard Medical School.

Medicine

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Dementia, Alzheimer's Disease, Traumatic Brain Injury, Resisting Care, Telemedicine

Alzheimer’s Disease Family Caregivers Will Get Telemedicine Training

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UAB launches study to see if family caregivers for dementia patients can benefit and improve quality of life from learning strategies to alter care-resistant behavior, such as refusal to take a bath, take medicine, accept routine mouth care, abstain from alcohol or go to a medical appointment.







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