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A reporter's PressPass is required to access this story until the embargo expires on 9-May-2016 3:00 PM EDT

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Fastest-Ever Molecular Imaging Reveals Reaction Crucial for Vision

Every process that sustains life is carried out by proteins, but understanding how these complex molecules do their jobs depends on learning the arrangement of their atoms -- and how this structure changes -- as they react. No imaging method for observing molecular movement in such detail and speed had been available, until now.

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T Cells Use 'Handshakes' to Sort Friends From Foes

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T cells use a kind of mechanical handshake, or tug test, to determine whether a cell they encounter is a foreign invader.

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Scientists Watch Bacterial Sensor Respond to Light in Real Time

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Researchers have made a giant leap forward in taking snapshots of these ultrafast reactions in a bacterial light sensor. Using the world’s most powerful X-ray laser at the Department of Energy’s SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, they were able to see atomic motions as fast as 100 quadrillionths of a second – 1,000 times faster than ever before.

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From Genome Research: Venus Flytrap Exploits Plant Defenses in Carnivorous Lifestyle

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Venus flytraps have fascinated biologists for centuries, however, the molecular underpinnings of their carnivorous lifestyle remain largely unknown. In a study published online today in Genome Research, researchers characterized gene expression, protein secretion, and ultrastructural changes during stimulation of Venus flytraps and discover that common plant defense systems, which typically protect plants from being eaten, are also used by Venus flytraps for insect feeding.

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A reporter's PressPass is required to access this story until the embargo expires on 9-May-2016 12:00 PM EDT

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Antibody Appears to Attack Cancer Cells, Leaving Other Cells Unscathed

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A research team from Duke Health has developed an antibody from the body’s own immune system that preferentially attacks cancer cells. The antibody works by targeting a natural defense mechanism that cancer tumors exploit. Cells in the body essentially use a home security system that relies on certain proteins to protect the cell surface and keep it safe. These proteins help the cell avoid injury and even death from unwanted activation of the immune system.

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Understanding Lock for Cellular Trap Door May Lead to Better Disease Treatment

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A team of researchers who two years ago announced a “Trojan horse” method of entering a cell without harming it have now found, in effect, the lock to the cellular “trap door.”

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U of G Finding May Rewrite Cell Biology Textbooks

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A University of Guelph research team found that cells produce proteins under low oxygen levels in significantly different ways than classic examples based on artificial lab studies.

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Pond Scum and the Gene Pool: One Critical Gene in Green Algae Responsible for Multicellular Evolution, Understanding of Cancer Origin

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Brad Olson, assistant professor in the Division of Biology; Erik Hanschen, doctoral student at the University of Arizona; Hisayoshi Nozaki, University of Tokyo; and an international team of researchers found a single gene is responsible for the evolution of multicellular organisms.

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Genetic Switch Could Be Key to Increased Health and Lifespan

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Newly discovered genetic switches that increase lifespan and boost fitness in worms are also linked to increased lifespan in mammals, offering hope that drugs to flip these switches could improve human metabolic function and increase longevity.

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Humans Have Faster Metabolism than Closely Related Primates, Enabling Larger Brains, Study Finds

Loyola University Chicago researchers are among the co-authors of a groundbreaking study that found humans have a higher metabolism rate than closely related primates, which enabled humans to evolve larger brains. The findings may point toward strategies for combating obesity.

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TSRI Scientists Find Root Cause of Appetite Loss During Illness

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Loss of appetite during illness is common and potentially debilitating; in cancer patients, especially, it can even shorten lifespan. Scientists at The Scripps Research Institute have discovered how an immune system molecule hijacks a brain circuit and reduces appetite.

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Cellular Architecture of Human IDH1-Mutant Gliomas Revealed Using Single-Cell RNA Sequencing

Single cell transcriptome analysis in IDH1-mutant gliomas reveals three distinct subpopulations of tumor cells: two dominant populations of specialized glial-like cells and a third rarer stem/progenitor-like subpopulation capable of cellular proliferation.

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Squished Cells Could Shape Design of Synthetic Materials

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Cell membranes stand up to significant amounts of stretching and bending, but only recently have scientists started to fully appreciate the useful organization and functions that result from all that stress. A multidisciplinary group working within the Materials Research Science and Engineering Center (MRSEC) at the University of Wisconsin-Madison is trying to recreate aspects of those broad design principles in synthetic systems comprised of simple membranes and complex fluids.

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Transplanted Nerve Cells Survive a Quarter of a Century in a Parkinson’s Disease Patient

In the late 1980s and over the 1990s, researchers at Lund University in Sweden pioneered the transplantation of new nerve cells into the brains of patients with Parkinson’s disease. The outcomes proved for the first time that transplanted nerve cells can survive and function in the diseased human brain. Some patients showed marked improvement after the transplantation while others showed moderate or no relief of symptoms. A small number of patients suffered unwanted side-effects in the form of involuntary movements.

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UT Southwestern Researchers Identify New Autism Blood Biomarker

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Researchers at UT Southwestern Medical Center have identified a blood biomarker that may aid in earlier diagnosis of children with autism spectrum disorder, or ASD.

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Research Points to a New Treatment for Pancreatic Cancer

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Researchers have shown how controlling cholesterol metabolism in pancreatic cancer cells reduces metastasis, pointing to a potential new treatment using drugs previously developed for atherosclerosis.

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Bacteria Use Traffic-Cop-Like Mechanism to Infect Gut

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WSU scientists discover mechanism critical to pathogens' success.

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Algae Use Their 'Tails' to Gallop and Trot Like Quadrupeds

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Long before there were fish swimming in the oceans, tiny microorganisms were using long slender appendages called cilia and flagella to navigate their watery habitats. Now, new research reveals that species of single-celled algae coordinate their flagella to achieve a remarkable diversity of swimming gaits.