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Medicine

Science

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Cryo Electron Microscope, cryo-EM, cryo-electron microscopy, Structural Biology

Cryo-EM Reveals Ignition Mechanism for DNA Replication

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An international team of scientists, led by structural biologists at Van Andel Research Institute, has shed new light on a critical step in DNA replication, offering fresh insights into a fundamental process of life and driver of many different diseases, including cancer.

Life

Education

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Higher Education, Academic Research, Mandatory Retirement

Does Faculty Productivity Really Decline with Age?

Conventional wisdom holds that a faculty member's research career peaks at about five years, followed by a steady decline in productivity. But new research shows this stereotype is "remarkably inaccurate."

Medicine

Science

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University of Vienna, Caesarean section, Birth, risk, Natural Selection, fetopelvic disproportion, Philipp Mitteroecker, Philipp Mitteröcker, c-section, PNAS

Risk of Caesarean Section Is Heritable

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Women born by Caesarean section due to a fetopelvic disproportion (FDP) are more than twice as likely to develop FDP when giving birth than women born naturally. This is the conclusion of a study by a team of evolutionary biologists at the University of Vienna headed by Philipp Mitteroecker. Using a mathematical model, the team was able to explain the paradoxical phenomenon that natural selection did not lead to the reduction in the rates of obstructed labour. Empirical data also support that the regular use of C-sections has already triggered an evolutionary increase of FPD rates.

Medicine

Science

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Systems Biology, Genomics, Proteomics, Bioengineering, genome-scale model, Bernhard Palsson, UC San Diego Jacobs School of Engineering

Model Predicts How E. coli Bacteria Adapt Under Stress

Researchers at UC San Diego have developed a genome-scale model that can accurately predict how E. coli bacteria respond to temperature changes and genetic mutations. The work sheds light on how cells adapt under environmental stress and has applications in precision medicine, where adaptive cell modeling could provide patient-specific treatments for bacterial infections.

Science

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Chemical Engineering, Carbon Dioxide, Carbon Monoxide, electrocatalysts, artificial photosynthesis, Fuels

Converting Carbon Dioxide to Carbon Monoxide Using Water, Electricity

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Researchers at the University of Illinois at Chicago and the Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis have determined how electrocatalysts can convert carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide using water and electricity. The discovery can lead to the development of efficient electrocatalysts for large scale production of synthesis gas — a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen.

Science

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Biological and Environmental Research, biological and environmental sciences, Gene, Genetics, Great lakes Bioenergy Research Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, grasses, Grass, Crop Science, Crop Sciences, Crops, bioenergy crops, Biofuels, Biofuel, Feedstock, Flowering, flowering plants, Plant Growth, plant growth regulators, Vernalization, genes, Biomass

Discovering the Genetic Timekeepers in Bioenergy Crops

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A new class of plant-specific genes required for flowering control in temperate grasses is found.

Science

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Biological and Environmental Research, biological and environmental sciences, Joint Genome Institute, JGI, Algae, Alga, red algae, Photosynthesis, Lipids, porphyra umbilicalis, Genome, Genetics, genomic analysis, genomic data, Marine Science, Marine Sciences, marine algae, PNAS, Proceedings Of The National Academy Of Sciences, University of Maine, Intertidal,

A Complex Little Alga that Lives by the Sea

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The genetic material of Porphyra umbilicalis reveals the mechanisms by which it thrives in the stressful intertidal zone at the edge of the ocean.

Medicine

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Alzheimer's Disease, tau, TREM2

Alzheimer’s Gene Poses Both Risk — and Benefits

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Scientists drilling down to the molecular roots of Alzheimer’s disease have encountered a good news/bad news scenario. The bad news is that in the early stages of the disease, high-risk TREM2 variants can hobble the immune system’s ability to protect the brain from amyloid beta. The good news, according to researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, is that later in the disease, the absence of TREM2 protein seems to protect the brain from damage.

Science

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Basic Energy Sciences, Basic Energy Research, Advanced Scientific Computing Research, Material Science, material sciences, Materials Science, Materials Science & Engineering, materials science engineering, materials sciences, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, LBNL, PNAS, Berkeley Lab, Proceedings Of The Natinal Academy Of Sciences, Molecular Foundr

Speeding Materials Discovery Puts Solar Fuels on the Fast Track to Commercial Viability

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In just two years, a process that was developed by Molecular Foundry staff and users has nearly doubled the number of materials with the potential for using sunlight to produce fuel.

Science

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Evolution, Proteins, artificial evolution, Enzymes, artificial antibodies, Antibodies, Fleishman

Using Spare Parts Might “Jump-Start” Protein Design

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Weizmann Institute scientists find that including “non-ideal” components in the design may be key to functional artificial proteins







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