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Queen’s University Developing New Drug Against Leading Causes of Death in the UK – Sepsis and ARDS

Scientists at Queen’s University Belfast are developing a potential revolutionary new treatment for Sepsis and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), which are among the leading causes of death in hospitalised patients in the UK.

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Columbia Engineering Team Develops Targeted Drug Delivery to Lung

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Researchers from Columbia Engineering and Columbia University Medical Center have developed a new method that can target delivery of very small volumes of drugs into the lung. Their approach, in which micro-liters of liquid containing a drug are instilled into the lung, distributed as a thin film in the predetermined region of the lung airway, and absorbed locally, may provide much more effective treatment of lung disease. (August 31 online Early Edition PNAS)

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Study in Mice Suggests How Anesthesia May Fight Lung Infections

In experiments in mice, researchers at Johns Hopkins and elsewhere have added to evidence that certain so-called “volatile” anesthetics — commonly used during surgeries — may also possess powerful effects on the immune system that can combat viral and bacterial infections in the lung, including influenza and pneumonia.

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CPAP Works: Common Sleep Apnea Treatment Reverses Brain Function Changes Associated with Heart Disease

CPAP machines are a common treatment for obstructive sleep apnea, but some people have a hard time adjusting and do not continue the treatment or are reluctant to start. A new study shows that CPAP is an effective sleep apnea treatment, finding that it reverses health changes that result in cardiovascular disease if the disorder is left untreated.

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Nanoparticles Used to Breach Mucus Barrier in Lungs

Researchers at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, and Federal University of Rio de Janeiro in Brazil have designed a DNA-loaded nanoparticle that can pass through the mucus barrier covering conducting airways of lung tissue.

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Real-Time Imaging of Lung Lesions During Surgery Helps Localize Tumors and Improve Precision

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New molecular tools are emerging to identify lung adenocarcinomas during pulmonary resection. The results of a proof-of-concept study suggest that lung cancer fluorescent imaging during surgery using targeted molecular agents may soon be a reality. While the methodology still needs refinement, the technique holds the possibility of precise visualization of tumor margins, detection of other tumors or metastases, localization of small malignant ground glass opacities, and accurate identification of lymph nodes containing metastatic cancer cells.

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Researchers Create Promising New Mouse Model for Lung Injury Repair

Researchers at Children’s Hospital Los Angeles and The Saban Research Institute of CHLA created a dynamic functional mouse model for lung injury repair, a tool that will help scientists explain the origins of lung disease and provide a system by which new therapies can be identified and tested.

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Diagnostic Test Developed for Enterovirus D68

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Researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis have developed a diagnostic test to quickly detect enterovirus D68 (EV-D68), a respiratory virus that caused unusually severe illness in children last year. The outbreak caused infections at an unprecedented rate, with over 1,000 confirmed cases and 14 reported deaths nationwide, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

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Hiding in Plain Sight: Clinical Pathway Uncovers Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Hospitalized Patients

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A multi-disciplinary group of researchers and physicians at Thomas Jefferson University and Hospitals have created a clinical pathway to identify obstructive sleep apnea in higher-risk, hospitalized patients.

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New Guidelines for the Treatment of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Released by Leading Respiratory Societies

Updated guidelines on the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) have been released by an international group of leading respiratory societies, The new guidelines, issued by the American Thoracic Society, the European Respiratory Society, the Japanese Respiratory Society, and the Latin American Thoracic Association, were published in the American Thoracic Society’s American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.

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Study Highlights Pneumonia Hospitalizations Among US Adults

Viruses, not bacteria, are the most commonly detected respiratory pathogens in U.S. adults hospitalized with pneumonia, according to a New England Journal of Medicine study released today and conducted by researchers at Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and hospitals in Chicago and Nashville, including Vanderbilt University Medical Center.

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First-Ever Possible Treatments For MERS; Researchers Identify Two Promising Candidates

As the South Korean MERS outbreak continues, researchers have discovered and validated two therapeutics that show early promise in preventing and treating the disease, which can cause severe respiratory symptoms, and has a death rate of 40 percent.

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Study Shows Acute Pulmonary Fibrosis May Respond to Autoimmune Disease Therapy

Patients with acute exacerbations of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis responded well to therapies similar to those used to treat autoimmune diseases, suggesting that autoantibodies may play an important role in patients with acute exacerbations of IPF, a devastating lung disease.

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American Thoracic Society Issues Recommendations on Healthy Sleep

The American Thoracic Society has released a policy statement with recommendations for clinicians and the general public on achieving good quality sleep and getting an adequate quantity of sleep.

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UGA Researchers Find Potential Treatment for Fatal Lung Diseases

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Researchers at the University of Georgia have discovered that the drug triciribine may reverse or halt the progression of pulmonary fibrosis and pulmonary hypertension, two respiratory diseases that are almost invariably fatal. They published their findings in the British Journal of Pharmacology.

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Physical Activity Decreases over Time at All Levels of COPD Severity, Leading to Further Decline

Physical activity decreases substantially over time in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) at all levels of severity, according to a new study from researchers in Germany.

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Why Obesity Predisposes to Severe Respiratory Failure

A hormone that regulates blood sugar levels may be the key to reducing the risk of acute respiratory distress syndrome in obese patients.

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Community Acquired Pneumonia Increases Long-Term Morbidity and Mortality

Having had community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) greatly increases the risk of long-term morbidity and mortality compared to the general population who have never had CAP, according to a new study from researchers in Canada, the longest and largest outcomes study of patients with CAP reported to date.

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UAB Emphysema Patient Has Good Result From Experimental One-Way Valve Procedure

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An experimental procedure using one-way valves to achieve lung volume reduction shows promise for an emphysema patient at UAB.

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Gut Check: Does a Hospital Stay Set Patients Up for Sepsis by Disrupting the Body’s Microbiome?

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Can a routine hospital stay upset the balance of microbes in our bodies so much that it sets some older people up for a life-threatening health crisis called sepsis? A new study suggests this may be the case.