In the past decade, researchers have begun to appreciate the importance of a two-way communication that occurs between microbes in the gastrointestinal tract and the brain, known as the gut–brain axis.
Researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis have found that a defect in an enzyme called APT1 interferes with the ability to secrete insulin, contributing to the development of Type 2 diabetes in people who are overweight or obese.
Studying mice, researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis have found that proteins made by stem cells to help regenerate the cornea may become new targets for treating and preventing injuries to the cornea related to dry eye disease. When eyes are dry, the cornea is more susceptible to injury.
Youth who underwent metabolic and bariatric surgery as teenagers are at heightened risk for alcohol use, according to the first study to document long-term alcohol use and associated issues in this population. Researchers found that after eight years, nearly half of study participants had alcohol use disorders, symptoms of alcohol-related harm, or alcohol-related problems. Results were published in the journal Annals of Surgery.
Analysis shows steep increases in organ donations, transplantations during large motorcycle rallies. The increase in organ donations and transplantations appears to be driven by well-documented increases in crash-related deaths during large motorcycle rallies.
A new study by Cedars-Sinai investigators describes risk factors that could make it more likely for people who have chronic pancreatitis, an ongoing inflammation of the pancreas, to develop diabetes. The findings are published in Diabetes Care.
New research presented this week at ACR Convergence 2022, the American College of Rheumatology’s annual meeting, demonstrated that withholding mycophenolate mofetil for 10 days significantly increased antibody response after 2 doses of COVID-19 vaccine, without a significant increase in flares.
In the battle of the sexes, women beat men in their ability to recover from kidney injury, but the reasons are not well understood. A study led by Duke Health researchers provides some insights: Females, it turns out, have an advantage at the molecular level that protects them from a form of cell death that occurs in injured kidneys. This protection could be exploited as a potential therapeutic.
A device known as a bionic pancreas, which uses next-generation technology to automatically deliver insulin, was more effective at maintaining blood glucose (sugar) levels within normal range than standard-of-care management among people with type 1 diabetes, a new multicenter clinical trial has found.
In 2015, published findings from the landmark Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) showed that intensive blood pressure management reduced cardiovascular disease and lowered the risk of death. In 2019, results of the SPRINT MIND trial showed that lowering blood pressure also reduced the risk of mild cognitive impairment in older adults.
Now, researchers from Wake Forest University School of Medicine have shown that while intensive blood pressure control was beneficial to SPRINT participants’ health during the trial, the benefits for cardiovascular mortality went away after approximately two years when protocols for blood pressure management were no longer being followed.
Multiple lipid biomarkers are linked to the development of neuropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes, a new study finds. Participants with high scores for diabetic neuropathy had changes in lipids reflecting impaired energy metabolism. Researchers say the findings bring potential to identify those with the highest risk of developing disease and facilitate more focused management.
Scientists at Tufts University have discovered a pathway through which communications are regulated in the brain, and a misfire in the messaging can result in overeating, slower burning of calories, and other metabolic problems linked to obesity.
New research in rats finds a diet high in the fiber inulin offered a protective effect against the damage of a high-salt diet. The research will be presented this week at the American Physiological Society and American Society for Nephrology Control of Renal Function in Health and Disease conference
Joslin Diabetes Center, the preeminent institution for diabetes research and care, affiliated with Harvard Medical School and a part of Beth Israel Lahey Health, has again been awarded $8.5 million from the National Institutes of Health/National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIH/NIDDK) in continued support for Joslin’s Diabetes Research Center (DRC) program. The grant, which officially began April 1, 2022, marks the 36th continuous year of NIH investment in Joslin’s DRC.
Black kidney transplant recipients have a faster clearance rate of the immunosuppressive drug tacrolimus than white recipients, according to a new study led by the University at Buffalo. The study, published earlier this year in Pharmacotherapy, is one of the first to examine how both race and sex influence tacrolimus pharmacokinetics.
Ajay Jain, M.D., professor of pediatrics, pharmacology, and physiology at Saint Louis University School of Medicine, has received funding from the National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Diseases of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to study Short Bowel syndrome (SBS).
A University of Illinois Chicago team has summarized research on intermittent fasting to provide insights into its effects on the body and to provide advice for incorporating these diets in everyday life. They have also presented recommendations for future research into these popular diet methods. “Clinical application of intermittent fasting for weight loss: progress and future directions,” was recently published in Nature Reviews Endocrinology.
Johns Hopkins Medicine researchers analyzed electronic health records and insurance claims data to better understand patients with prediabetes in the Johns Hopkins Health System, and then used that information to recommend improvements in prediabetes care applicable to all medical institutions.
As organisms grow, older cells can undergo a phenomenon called senescence. This process defines a cell state where cells permanently stop dividing but do not die. Senescent cells secrete toxic pro-inflammatory factors contributing to the development of many diseases.
A paper published this week in the journal Immunity lays the groundwork to better understand and treat Crohn’s disease. The research identified a new role for Interleukin-17A (IL-17A), an immune cell-derived cytokine, in promoting selective epithelial cell development and limiting inflammation during colitis.
Some physicians are much more likely to deliver appropriate care than others, even in clinical situations where guidelines for appropriate care are clear.
Notable—at times dramatic—differences were found across 14 common clinical scenarios representing seven specialties.
The findings highlight the importance of understanding the reasons for these variations and developing ways to minimize them to improve the value of care.
Researchers at Penn State College of Medicine are seeking volunteers from across the U.S. to participate in a clinical trial examining whether online mindfulness-based stress reduction can reduce stress and average blood sugar levels in those with Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes.
Studies suggest that exposure to the COVID-19 pandemic has been associated with a variety of different mental health consequences including reports of depression, loneliness, and insomnia. People who are more than 65 years of age and those with underlying medical conditions such as type 2 diabetes and obesity are particularly vulnerable to negative outcomes from COVID-19. Until now, few investigations have identified and separated the mental health consequences of exposure to the COVID-19 pandemic from preexisting factors in this age group. A new prospective study of a large cohort of older adults with type 2 diabetes and overweight/obesity from across the U.S. has explored this subject with surprising results.
A team of researchers studying genetic data to identify hormone responses in a population of Mexican Americans with prediabetes, Type 2 diabetes, and obesity recently received a $3.5 million grant to fund a five-year study set to begin in late 2021.
Eating your daily calories within a consistent window of 8-10 hours is a powerful strategy to prevent and manage chronic diseases such as diabetes and heart disease, according to a new manuscript published in the Endocrine Society’s journal, Endocrine Reviews.
Today, advocates of the American Society of Nephrology (ASN) and 19 other kidney health professional and patient organizations are meeting with their congressional delegations, calling on them to enact policies to improve kidney health
About 300,000 to 400,000 fetuses per year from mothers with diabetes develop neural tube defects—when the tissue that eventually forms the brain and spinal cord fails to form properly—which can lead to miscarriage or profound disability.
The gut microbiome can impact us in a variety of different ways, from our metabolism to our mood. Now, NIBIB-funded researchers are investigating if a fiber-based gel can restore beneficial microbes in the gut to enhance the efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors, a type of cancer immunotherapy treatment, in mice.
Cedars-Sinai Cancer researchers have discovered that intestinal microorganisms help regulate anti-tumor immune responses to radiation treatments, and that fungi and bacteria have opposing effects on those responses.
A new study led by University of California, Irvine (UCI) researchers identifies two ways in which APOBEC3A— a vital enzyme that is responsible for genetic changes resulting in a variety of cancers while protecting our cells against viral infection—is controlled.
DALLAS – July 30, 2021 – UT Southwestern faculty have discovered what appears to be an Achilles’ heel in ovarian cancers, as well as new biomarkers that could point to which patients are the best candidates for possible new treatments.
A Wayne State University School of Medicine researcher has been awarded a $2.3 million grant by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases of the National Institutes of Health, to support research in circadian RNA modification in metabolic disease.
In a study published today in the Annals of Internal Medicine, Johns Hopkins Medicine researchers say they believe that, for the first time, there is evidence to show that three doses of vaccine increase antibody levels against SARS-CoV-2 — the virus that causes COVID 19 — more than the standard two-dose regimen for people who have received solid organ transplants.
Nearly half a billion people have diabetes, but only 1 in 10 of those in low- and middle-income countries are getting the kind of care that could make their lives healthier, longer and more productive, according to a new global study of data. Many don’t even know they have the condition.
News release about the follow-up data from the landmark SPRINT study of the effect of high blood pressure on cardiovascular disease have confirmed that aggressive blood pressure management — lowering systolic blood pressure to less than 120 mm Hg -- dramatically reduces the risk of heart disease, stroke, and death from these diseases, as well as death from all causes, compared to lowering systolic blood pressure to less than 140 mm Hg.
A combination of inexpensive oral medications may be able to treat fatigue-inducing anemias caused by chronic diseases and inflammation, a new discovery from the University of Virginia School of Medicine suggests.
In the first clinical trial of nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis have found that the compound previously demonstrated to counteract aspects of aging and improve metabolic health in mice also has clinically relevant effects in people.
Early treatment with anti-VEGF injections slowed diabetic retinopathy in a clinical study from the DRCR Retina Network (DRCR.net). However, two years into the four-year study its effect on vision was similar to standard treatment, which usually begins at the onset of late disease.
Researchers from Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey previously identified a small protein called Rab1A that regulates amino acid signaling. In a recent study, researchers explored the physiological role of Rab1A in mammals using mice though a technique in which one of an organism's genes is made inoperative, known as genetic knockout.
For people who are overweight or obese and have type 2 diabetes, the first line of treatment is usually lifestyle intervention, including weight loss and increased physical activity. While this approach has cardiovascular benefit for many, it can be detrimental for people who have poor blood sugar control, according to a study conducted by researchers at Wake Forest School of Medicine.
Blocking cell receptors for glucagon, the counter-hormone to insulin, cured mouse models of diabetes by converting glucagon-producing cells into insulin producers instead, a team led by UT Southwestern reports in a new study. The findings, published online in PNAS, could offer a new way to treat both Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes in people.